THESIS WORKSHOPfor APA onlyCSUF Department of Graduate Studiesfullerton.edu/graduate Mrs. Debra L. Stewart University Thesis/Dissertation Reader MH-112; firstname.lastname@example.org Revised for Fall 2013
THESIS WORKSHOP INTRODUCTION What I want YOU to know: • What is expected of YOU. • How/where to get assistance. • What MY role is and is not.
THESIS WORKSHOP INTRODUCTION Why this workshop? Basically, to save YOU time/$.
And save MY time. Four weeks. So little time. So many pages.
- THESIS DEADLINES - FOR OUR MUTUAL BENEFIT • Submission deadline: • four weeks before the last day of classes. • Bookstore deposit: Last day of examinations. • For Students Planning to Graduate in January 2014 (Fall 2013) • Deadline to Submit to Graduate Studies Office Friday, November 22, 2013 • Deadline to Deposit in CSUF Bookstore Friday, December 20, 2013 • For Students Planning to Graduate in August 2014 (Summer 2014):Deadline to Submit to Graduate Studies Office Friday, April 11, 2014 Deadline to Deposit in CSUF Bookstore Friday, May 9, 2014 • When is your thesis defense scheduled?
WHAT IS A MASTER’S THESIS? “The master’s thesis is theculminating experience of your graduate program, and ademonstration of your ability to develop and present a clear and scholarly workwithin your chosen field of study. Our goal in this final editorial process is to ensure that your thesis is a credit to this university,and ultimately a lifelong source of pride for you.” THUS,
A THESIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PAPER OF YOUR ACADEMIC LIFE (UP TO THIS POINT) IT MUST MEET CSU STANDARDS and be ACADEMICALLY PERFECT*
A THESIS IS A “FIXED FORM” It is not a journal article, It is not a research paper, It is not a grant, It exists for one purpose only: TO FULFILL CSUF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS.
FORMAT: Why the big deal? This is a unique “book.” It has publishing guidelines, set by: • UMI/Proquest(microfilm restrictions) • California State University (policies) • CSUF (binding, margins, page numbering, figures/tables; campus uniformity) • Departmental choices (i.e., documentation sourcing, footnotes, headings)
FORMAT: How a thesis looks Follow the: THESIS MANUAL for format fullerton.edu/graduate FORMAT: The way in which something is arranged or set out.
THESIS REQUIREMENTS HOW do I know what they are? WHERE do I find them? WHAT do I do with them?
REQUIREMENTS CSUF THESIS INFORMATION &MANUSCRIPT GUIDELINES http://fullerton.edu/graduate/
THE THESIS MANUAL (TM) • 19 pages. • Download. Print. Refer to it. • Answers(ALMOST) ALL F.A.Qs. http://fullerton.edu/graduate/
THESIS MANUAL: What’s in it? • Font • Margins • Spacing • Page numbering • Headings/Subheadings • Figures and Tables • Approval info • Paper • Order of parts • Front matter • Back matter • Cautions • TEMPLATES • Dates
FORMATTING INSTRUCTIONS • Use the materials • A perfectly formatted thesis • can be turned in without ever consulting me by using the • Thesis Template and Manual.
ORDER OF PARTS • TITLE/SIGNATURE PAGE • ABSTRACT • TABLE OF CONTENTS • LIST OF FIGURES FRONT MATTER • LIST OF TABLES • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS • Chapters (main body) • APPENDIX OR APPENDICESBACK • BIBLIOGRAPHY OR REFERENCESMATTER
Title/Signature Page MOST problematic. Must be 100% PERFECT. The RIGHT paper. The RIGHT spacing. The RIGHT spelling. ALL faculty signatures. Horror stories....
THE TITLE/SIGNATURE PAGEIS the most STRICT FORM.IT HAS TO BE PERFECT THE FIRST TIME. NO EXCEPTIONS!
CORRECT PAPER STOCK FOR THE FINAL COPY (and Title/Signature pages) Use a basic 20-pound, 25% cotton paper, or your thesis will be large and unwieldy and result in additional fees for binding. AVERAGE THESIS LONG THESIS Must be printed by laser printer on white, 8 ½ by 11, 20- to 24-pound weight, and 25% to 100%cotton rag paper.
Abstract Top margin of 2”. 250 words (best). Include “keywords.”
STYLE GUIDELINES are found in APA MANUALmostly correct, but there are problems: see http://blog.apastyle.org/
STYLE? Why? A way to communicate scientifically. What? A simple set of codified procedures for social sciences. How come? So readers can cull articles quickly for key points and findings.
WHY USE THE APA STYLE GUIDE? IT INCLUDES LITTLE PICKY THINGS • ORDINALS: Is it first, 1st, or 1st place? • ELLIPSIS: Those funny dots . . . are like that, not…this or … that. A period adds a fourth dot. . . . That is, if it’s in between sentences. • NUMBERS: fifteen or 15? Two hundred or 300? • BLOCK QUOTES: Double or single space?
Landscape orientation: Where does the page number go? (In portrait orientation, like others; but it requires a specific Word technique that’s icky.) • “Commas and periods,” go inside the quotation marks. • Single quotes “stay ‘inside’ quotations.” • Serial commas: X, Y, and Z. • Dashes come-in—different sizes. Why?
WHY “STYLE”? • Test: Which is correct? • It’s a “convention.” • It is a “convention”. • It is a “convention.”
APA Citation Issues Parenthetical format, first citation in text: (Cherry, 2007) (Cherry & Chang, 2004) (Cherry, Chang, & Jones, 2011) (Cherry, Chang, Jones, & Shimizu, 2012) (Cherry, Chang, Jones, Shimizu, & Rutledge, 2013) (Cherry et al., 2006) Etc. Etc. Etc.
APA Citation Issues Coordinate closely between the text citations and the citation in the reference list.
APA: More than one author When you list more than one source within a text citation: • Alphabetize the list by author. (Adler, 2003; Guillaume & Yopp, 2001; Randall, Ames, & Smith, 2010) • Place a semi-colon between research groups.
APA Reference Issues Journals; are different than Books; which are different than Book chapters; which are way different than Multivolume works; which require Vol. X, and Edited works; that are slightly more tricky, and Conference reports; which are quite complicated. Websites are the easiest, and then Misc., which are all the rest. Every type has a style. Etc. Etc. Etc. Remember I’m trying to help you!
YOUR REFERENCE SECTIONIS A STRICT FORM (and usually the most difficult).IT HAS TO BE CONSISTENT.
Which is the correct “REFERENCE STYLE” for APA? Fisher, C. (2003). Decoding the ethics code. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Fisher, Celia. Decoding the Ethics Code. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003. Fisher, C.J. Decoding the Ethics Code. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003. Etc. Etc. Etc.
References to journal articles include the volume, issue, and page numbers. Rada, R. D. (1984, Spring-Winter). Community dissatisfaction and school governance. Planning & Change, 14(4), 234-247. Author initials take a space between them. Names of journals are capitalized. Seven or more authors take an ellipsis within the grouping.
LISTS • List decisions • indent them to .5 (or where a paragraph starts). • determine your purpose • List purposes • chronological, ordered, procedural, or of relative importance to each other? • Bullets, letters, or numbers serve different purposes. • Use the same bullet image for all bulleted lists.
BLOCK QUOTES According to Cox (2000), “there are three ways to structure the introduction to a questionnaire” (p. 3). NOTE: At the end of a block quote (of 40+ words), the period goes at the end of the last word in the quote and then the citation is given. Block quotes are double spaced and indented ½ inch from the left margin. Benson, Harkavy and Puckett (2000) based their support for university-community partnerships on a Dewy-inspired focus on implementation as a primary task of scholarship. The very common concern about the divide between research and application is sustained by the false assumption that theory is “superior” and application is “inferior.” They call this a false Platonic dualism arguing that: Fulfilling the democratic promise of American society for all Americans in the new millennium requires that scholars and practitioners work hard to exorcise the “living ghost” of Plato form the body of the American higher education system. Quite simply, to improve the state of American society…requires significant, serious, sustained, and mutually respectful collaboration between academics and practitioners. (p. 24)
Numbers at the beginning of sentences are spelled out. NUMBERS • This is wrong: 36% of the respondents indicated that. . . . • This is right: Thirty-six percent of the respondents indicated..
APA HEADINGS CHAPTER THREE THIS IS THE CHAPTER TITLE This is a Primary Heading This is how the first page of your thesis will look, using a chapter name and number (in Arabic numbers or spelled out) and APA-style headings that go with each section. Text and tables are double-spaced throughout the entire thesis. Do not add extra spacing between paragraphs. APA has a very clean format.
CMA/TURABIAN HEADINGS CHAPTER THREE x THIS IS THE CHAPTER TITLE x x This is a Primary Heading This is how the first page of your thesis will look, using a chapter name and number (in Arabic numbers or spelled out) and Turabian-style headings that go with each section. After each chapter title or section title (i.e., Abstract) text begins on the third single space from the title.
CMA/TURABIAN SUBHEADINGS This is a Secondary Heading or a Sub-Heading This represents a sub-section of the primary heading. All headings should be worded in the Table of Contents exactly as they are in the text. The text starts in the line one double space below the secondary heading and is indented .5 inches. Notice that it is underlined. This is a Tertiary Heading. This level of sub-heading is a sub-section of a secondary heading, but the Tertiary heading does not need to be included in the TOC. Both secondary and tertiary sub-headings aresubparts of the primary heading, just like in an outline. It does not go in the Table of Contents.
APA SUBHEADINGS This is a Secondary Heading or a Sub-Heading This represents a sub-section of the primary heading. All headings should be worded in the Table of Contents exactly as they are in the text. The text starts in the line one double space below the secondary heading and is indented. APA headings are formatted much differently than Turabian headings. This is a Tertiary Heading. This level of sub-heading is a sub-section of a secondary heading, but the tertiary heading does not need to be included in the TOC. Both secondary and tertiary sub-headings are subparts of the primary heading, just like in an outline. A tertiary heading does not go in the Table of Contents. NO extra space between paragraphs. NO full justification. Weird things happen/pop up/materialize! Be vigilant!
KEY TERMS and ITALICS Use italics for: • Titles of books, periodicals, films, etc. • The first mention of a new or key term. Subsequent mentions do not take italics. • Anchors of a scale (health ratings ranged from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). • More (pp. 104-106). Do not use italics for: • Emphasis (in general, use syntax instead). • Common foreign phrases or abbreviations (i.e., e.g., i.e., a priori, per se, etc.)
Content and Style • TABLES: • What do they look like? • How are they spaced? • What about “runover” lines? • Can I add notes? • What is a stub column? Spanner? • FIGURES: Where are they placed on a page?
APA TABLES • The APA manual has mistakes! • General rules: • BE CONSISTENT! • Stub column is flush left. • Data cells are centered to decimal point. • Totals are indented by three spaces. • For subordination within a stub, indent for clarity. • For runover lines, indent OR double space between entries. • The note section has particularities.
TURABIAN TABLES Table 1. Smoking Among American Adults, By Age Smoke Don’t Smoke Age N (%) (%) 18-32 1,722 30.6 69.4 33-47 2,012 37.1 62.9 48-62 1,928 35.2 64.8 63+ 646 30.5 69.5 Total 7,308 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note. Turabian tables are similar to APA except for the titles and note sections. Source: Adapted from Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 2005.
FIGURES APA TURABIAN Figure X. Illustration of Thesis Writing. Figure X. Illustration of Thesis Writing. • Italics for figure number? No italics? • Title ALWAYS below graphic. • No matter what style, PLACE IT FLUSH LEFT!!!
HOW DO I LEARN ALL THIS? ( Pssst: STUDY THE THESIS MANUAL!