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Performance enhancing Substances and Techniques. What is an Ergogenic Aid?. A substance or device that enhances performance Illegal (e.g. blood doping) or legal (e.g. carbohydrate loading). 3 Types Ergogenic Aids. Nutritional Aids Pharmacological Aids Physiological Aids.

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what is an ergogenic aid
What is an Ergogenic Aid?
  • A substance or device that enhances performance
  • Illegal (e.g. blood doping) or legal (e.g. carbohydrate loading)
3 types ergogenic aids
3 Types Ergogenic Aids
  • Nutritional Aids
  • Pharmacological Aids
  • Physiological Aids
1 nutritional aids
1. Nutritional Aids
  • Substances used to enhance performance
  • Nutrients, metabolic by products of nutrients, food, substances commonly found in food provided in greater amounts than normal
example creatine
Example: Creatine

Description of the substance:

- an amino acid produced in the liver

that supplies some energy to muscle


- found in skeletal muscle

- increases production of ATP


Why does one take it?

  • Recall, when ATP is used during short bursts of activity, it turns into ADP
  • ADP needs a phosphocreatine to turn back into ATP
  • Supplementing extra creatine speeds up this process
  • Access is excreted

Availability and Cost

- Health food stores, gyms, online, etc…

  • 20$ to 30$ for a container (500g-1000)
  • Found naturally in red meats and some carbs

Short and Long Term Effects

  • Water retention
  • More energy
  • Muscles cramps
  • Upset stomach
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Kidney damage
  • Unknown

Legal or Illegal

  • Legal

Dangers and Risks

  • Possible damage to organs
  • May suppress bodies own need to create creatine naturally
  • Gateway drug
  • Most unknown
2 pharmacological aids
2. Pharmacological Aids
  • Aka ‘doping’
  • the use of an artifice, whether substance or method, potentially dangers to an athlete’s health and/or capable of enhancing performance
  • Need to be aware of over the counter drugs that contain traces
  • Almost universally banned
  • Regular testing
example anabolic steroids
Example: Anabolic Steroids

Description of the Substance:

  • Synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone

Why does one take it?

- Increase protein synthesis

  • Aids in the formation of muscle cells
  • Muscle grow bigger and repair faster

Availability and Cost

- Drug deals, online sites

  • $60 to $100 per bottle

Short and Long Term Effects

  • Muscle size increase
  • Liver damage
  • Aggressiveness
  • Facial hair growth
  • Deepening voice
  • Irregularities in the

menstrual cycle


Legal or Illegal

  • Illegal without prescription

Dangers or Risks

  • See side effects
  • Organ damage
  • Remember the man whose arms exploded ????
3 physiological aids
3. Physiological Aids
  • Practices used by an athlete
  • Help with performance
  • May alter heart rate, adrenaline rate, change the growth of muscles and bones
  • Types: blood doping and drug masking


Performance Enhancing Substances Include:

  • Nutritional AIDS
    • Vitamins and minerals
    • Proteins and amino acids
    • Releasers of growth hormones
    • Carnitine
    • Creatin
    • Caffine

Pharmacological AIDS

    • Pain masking drugs
    • Anabolic steroids
    • Prohormone
    • HGH
    • Erythropoitin


    • alcohol – prohibited
    • Marijuana – impairs psychomotor
    • Local anaesthetics
    • Corticosteriods
    • Beta bolckers

Physiological AIDS

  • Blood Doping
  • removal of one’s own red blood cells
  • give the body enough time to produce more
  • Then re-inject removed blood cells, thereby increasing the total volume of oxygen carrying red blood cells
  • Higher red blood cell count cause heart to work harder and increase the risk of cardiac fatigue and heart failure
  • Nowadays, blood doping has been replaced by injecting EPO (which causes body to create new RBC)

Drug Masking

- Drugs used to mask or reduce presence of banned substances – 2 forms

  • Agents that dilute the concentration of banned drugs in bloodstream
  • Diuretics which increase amount of urine produced to dilute the substance

Drug Testing

  • Successful drug testing involves random, year round, and unannounced testing
  • Athlete provides urine sample – usually after competition but sometimes before
  • Even if detected, may not be enough
  • Feerations make pre-set limits for each banned substance
  • Masking agents are also banned
  • HGH, testosterone and EPO are more difficult to detect because they have to be distinguished from naturally occuring hormones in the body
  • Testing positive is based on threshold values for naturally occuring substances in the blood