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AP Psychology 3-6 review . Ch 3 & 4: Developmental. Nature vs. nurture key debate How to study: cross-sectional longitudinal. Infant development. Teratogens – radiation (neurons migrate too far) alcohol (stop short) – fetal alcohol syndrome

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ch 3 4 developmental
Ch 3 & 4: Developmental
  • Nature vs. nurture key debate
  • How to study:
    • cross-sectional
    • longitudinal
infant development
Infant development

Teratogens– radiation (neurons migrate too far)

alcohol (stop short) – fetal alcohol syndrome

Reflexes– rooting, sucking, grasping, Moro (startle), Babinski(foot – spread toes)

turn toward mother’s voice

vision clearest at approx 12” when born

Motor development (maturation)

myelination of neurons key

attachment theory
Attachment theory

Harlow – touch – monkeys

Ainsworth– strange situation model

secure attachment (66%) – explore when parent there, upset when parent leaves

avoidant attachment (21%) – resist parents, explore, don’t return

anxious/ambivalent(12%) – stress when left, not comforted on return

parenting style
Parenting style
  • Diana Baumrind– researched parent-child interaction and defined 3 parenting styles

Authoritarian – strict standards – apply punishment more then rewards

Authoritative- standards are consistent & rules are explained – praise more then punish

Permissive – not clear guidelines – parents reactions are unpredictable

stage theories
Stage Theories
  • Freud
    • Oral – pleasure through mouth
    • anal
    • phallic - realize their gender
      • Oedipus/Electra complex
    • Latency – period of calm
    • Genital – sexual pleasure through genitals
stage theories1
Stage Theories

Erikson (neo-Freudian) -psychosocial stages

trust vs. mistrust (babies)

autonomy vs. shame & doubt (toddlers)

initiative vs. guilt (3-5) – problem solving

industry vs. inferiority (elemschool)

may develop inferiority complex

identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)

intimacy vs. isolation (early adult)

generativityvs. stagnation (middle adult)

-are our lives goes the way we want them to?

integrity vs. despair (older adult)

stage theories2
Stage Theories

Piaget (cognitive devt – worked for Alfred Binet)

schemas – assimilation & accommodation

sensorimotor(0-2 years)

object permanence (8 mo.)


egocentric – look only from their perspective

concrete operational (8-12)

conservation signals onset

volume, area, number

formal operations

abstract reasoning, testing hypotheses


Stage Theories

  • Moral development – Kohlberg
    • Heinz dilemma: steal the drug for the dying wife?




universal ethical principles

Carol Gilligan’s criticism of Kohlberg– women think relationally, situational

gender differences
Gender differences

Biopsychological theory

ex. women have larger corpus callosum

Psychodynamic theory (Freud)

-compete for parents attention (boys want mom’s love)

Social-cognitive theory

Social influences

Gender-schema theory – “rules” how each gender should behave


Sensation – transduction of mechanical energy into neural energy (bottom-up)

  • Perception – analysis and interpretation of sensation (top-down)

Transduction in the retina

cornea – pupil (iris controls opening) – lens – retina (rods & cones) – bipolar cells – ganglion cells – optic nerve

fovea– point of central focus (highest concentration of cones)

Blind spot

Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) – region in thalamus for vision

Hubel & Wiesel – feature detectors

Theories of color vision

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory – blue, red, green detectors

Opponent-process theory – afterimages (red/green, yellow/blue, black/white)


Amplitude(height – loudness), frequency (pitch)

Pinna – auditory canal – eardrum (tympanic membrane) – ossicles – oval window – cochlea (transduction)

Cochlea – hairs connect to organ of Corti – then to auditory nerve

Place theory – hairs react to certain frequencies in a certain place

Frequency theory – hairs fire at different rates to match frequency

Conduction hearing loss vs. sensorineural hearing loss

other senses
Other Senses


  • Gate-control theory of pain
  • Endorphins

Chemical senses: taste, smell

  • Taste buds on papillae(sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami)
  • Receptors in nose – directly to olfactory bulb – limbic system – bypasses thalamus

Vestibular (balance – semicircular canals)

kinesthetic(body position, orientation)

  • Absolute threshold – minimal stimulus for detection 50% of the time
    • subliminal – below absolute

Difference threshold (JND)

Weber’s law – difference vary in proportion to intensity of stimulus

Theories of perception

  • Signal detection theory (depends on state of perceiver)
  • Perceptual set (approach to perceptual task – influenced by schemata)
rules of visual perception
Rules of visual perception


Gestalt rules









rules of visual perception1
Rules of visual perception

Depth perception

visual cliff – crawlers have perception of depth

Binocular cues (both eyes)

binocular (or retinal) disparity


Monocular cues (can perceive as well with 1 eye as with 2)

Linear perspective

Relative size


Texture gradient


  • Muller-Lyer(lines with arrows) – culture affects perception
  • phi phenomenon (blinking lights appear to travel)
  • stroboscopic movement (flip books, cartoons)