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Democracy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Democracy. Direct democracy : merging of ruler and ruled Indirect democracy : also known as representative democracy; rulers are selected in genuine, competitive elections for a fixed time period 1. freedom of expression 2. popular sovereignty 3. political equality.

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Democracy


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    democracy
    Democracy
    • Direct democracy: merging of ruler and ruled
    • Indirect democracy: also known as representative democracy; rulers are selected in genuine, competitive elections for a fixed time period

    1. freedom of expression

    2. popular sovereignty

    3. political equality

    principles of american democracy
    Principles of American Democracy
    • Definition: Democracy is a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public’s preferences.
    • Democratic Theory (Robert Dahl)
      • Equality in voting
      • Effective participation
      • Free press and speech
      • Citizen control of the agenda
      • Inclusion
      • Majority Rule and Preservation of Minority Rights
    theories of u s democracy
    Theories of U.S. Democracy
    • Pluralist Theory
      • A theory of government and policies emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies
    • Groups will work together
    • Public interest will prevail through bargaining and compromise
    assumptions of pluralist theory
    Assumptions of Pluralist Theory
    • Many centers of power
    • Voters exercise meaningful choices and new elites can gain access to power
    • Multiple access points to government as power is dispersed on many levels and branches of government
    • Method of governance: bargaining and compromise
    • Electoral majorities rarely rule; active and legitimate groups can make themselves heard, manifested through rise in interest group activity
    theories of u s democracy continued
    Theories of U.S. Democracy Continued
    • Elite and Class Theory
      • A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization; elitists content that American democracy is less democratic than the pluralist believe
    • Not all groups equal
    • Policies benefit those with money and power
    assumptions of elitism
    Assumptions of Elitism
    • Society is divided along class lines
    • Upper class elite rules
    • Wealth is basis of class power; few have the power to act as policy makers
    • Big business is at the center of power and democracy
    • Elite consists of three interwoven strata: corporate, military, and political elite
    theories of u s democracy 1
    Theories of U.S. Democracy
    • Hyperpluralism
      • A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened.
    • Groups control policy and prevent government from acting
    • Difficulty in coordinating policy implementation
    • Confusing and contradictory policies result from politicians trying to placate every group
    challenges to democracy
    Challenges to Democracy
    • Increased Technical Expertise
    • Limited Participation in Government
    • Escalating Campaign Costs
    • Diverse Political Interests (policy gridlock)
    • Institutionalization of power

    a. Revolving door in Washington

    b. K-Street

    Allan Cigler(political scientist at Univ. of Kansas): "The growth of lobbying makes even worse than it is already the balance between those with resources and those without resources."

    according to open secrets org
    According to Open.Secrets.org

    Top Sector Spending between 1998-2006