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  1. Exit quiz: 1. This FUNCTION of conclusions essentially restates the argument. 2. This CLOSING DEVICE uses the sound of a sentence to help create the sense of a close. 3. This FUNCTION of conclusions aims to get the reader to change the way things are. 4. This CLOSING DEVICE returns to an image or phrase that opened the composition. 5. This FUNCTION of conclusions assesses the material and its implications.

  2. I. Concluding Paragraph A. 3 Functions B. 4 Closing Devices

  3. A. Function 1. Summarize: restate “Of these pilgrims, and of every reader, the attention will be exited by an History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; the greatest, perhaps, and most awful scene in the history of mankind. The various causes and progressive effects are connected with many of the events most interesting in human annals: the artful policy of the Caesars, who long maintained the name and image of a free republic; the disorders of military despotism; the rise, establishment, and sects of Christianity; the foundation of Constantinople…” Edward Gibbon, The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire

  4. A. Function 2. Judge:not, “I liked this”; or, “this was bad” “Thus new industrial revolution is a two-edged sword. It may be used for the benefit of humanity, assuming that humanity survives long enough to reach a period in which such a benefit is possible. If, however, we proceed along the clear and obvious lines of our traditional behavior, and follow our traditional worship of progress and the fifth freedom—the freedom to exploit—it is practically certain that we shall have to face a decade or more of ruin and despair.” Friedrich Klemm, A History of Western Technology

  5. A. Function 3. Call to Action “There are many other possibilities. The important thing is to begin reaching kids sooner. We must refocus our efforts from correcting the problem after the crime to creating alternatives that prevent the crime to creating alternatives that prevent the crime—not only in the interest of dollars but also for the sake of lives.” Edward J. Loughran, “Prevention of Delinquency”

  6. B. Closing devices: 1. Built-in Closings “Dr. Mann came as usual at 7:30 and Hardy talked to him cheerfully about recovering After he had left, towards nine o’clock, Hardy had a heart attack. Eva was in the room with him as it happened. He spoke some confused words and, when she tried to take his pulse, asked, ‘Eva, what is this?’ It was death, coming to him as she held his hand in hers. His long life, which had begun early on a June morning, ended in the darkness of midwinter, when it is easiest to die.” Thomas Hardy Claire Tomalin

  7. B. Closing devices: 2. Cyclic return [Opening graph] [Opening graph] “Charles Street, the principal thoroughfare on Boston’s Beacon Hill, is a comfortable street bordered by four-story brick buildings with apartments above antique stores and other shops on the ground level. At one time on one block American flags regularly hung over the entrances to the US Post Office. Then the PO stopped…” [Concluding graph] “…September 11 drastically reduced the salience of those other identities and sent Old Glory back to the top of the national flag pole….The seventeen flags on Charles St. declined to twelve in November, nine in December…” Sam Huntington, “The Crisis of National Identity”

  8. B. Closing devices: 3. Terminal words—sound of word So in the end when the sun goes down and I sit on the old broken-down river pier watching the long, long skies …and sense all that raw land that rolls in one unbelievable huge bulge over to the West Coast, and all that road going, all the people dreaming in the immensity of it, and in Iowa I know by now the children must be crying in the land where they let the children cry, and tonight the stars’ll be out, and don’t you know that God is Pooh Bear? The evening star must be drooping and shedding her sparkler dims on the prairie, which is just before the coming of complete night that blesses the earth, darkens all rivers, cups the peaks and folds the final shore in, and nobody, nobody knows what’s going to happen to anybody besides the forlorn rags of growing old. Jack Kerouac, On The Road

  9. B. Closing devices: 4. Rhythmic Variation “We all nodded at him: the man of finance, the man of accounts, the man of law, we all nodded at him over the polished table that like a still sheet of brow water reflected our faces, lined, wrinkled; our faces marked by toil, by deceptions, by success, by love; our weary eyes looking still, looking always, looking anxiously for something out of life, that while it is expected is already gone—as passed unseen, in a sigh, in a flash—together with the youth, with the strength, with the romance of illusions.” Joseph Conrad “Youth”

  10. Exit quiz 1. This FUNCTION of conclusions essentially restates the argument. 2. This CLOSING DEVICE uses the sound of a sentence to help create the sense of a close. 3. This FUNCTION of conclusions aims to get the reader to change the way things are. 4. This CLOSING DEVICE returns to an image or phrase that opened the composition. 5. This FUNCTION of conclusions assesses the material and its implications