Updates • Today:Task Analysis #2 & Quiz #3 (Group Review for next week’s quiz!) • Next Week/ Dec 2nd: Ecological Assessment Report & Quiz #4 • December 9th- PLAAFP Assignment & Quiz #5 (optional)
Agenda • Review & Quiz • Discussion of Chapter 10 • Assessing & Teaching Daily Living Skills • General Case Design Application Activity
Review from last week • http://aac-rerc.psu.edu/index.php/webcasts/show/id/5 • http://aac-rerc.psu.edu/index.php/webcasts/show/id/7 • Quiz- If you completed last week’s quizzes for this you will get full points for this week’s quiz!
Review—for next week’s quiz • We will have another review next week too just in case….. • Want to decrease anxiety as much as possible.
Review the task analysis on the data form so that steps … • Are stated in terms of observable behavior • Result in a visible change in the product or process • Are ordered in a logical sequence • Are written in the second-person singular so that they could serve as verbal prompts (if used)…example: Step #7- “Go sit on rainbow rug” • Use language that is not confusing to the student, with the performance details that are essential to assessing performance enclosed in parentheses Ex. Step #6- Go to schedule get Ms. W’s room card [when circle done]
Qualities of a Well-Designed Standards-Based IEP (modified from Wakeman et al., 2010)
Functional Analysis • What is it? • Why do we do it? • How do we do it in Real Life/Real Classrooms?
Functional Analysis Uses experimental method to determine function of behavior Requires strict env’l control Used predominantly in research w/ application to classroom Functional Behavioral Assessment Relies heavily on indirect measures (interviews & observations) to ID function of behavior Written into Special Education law for use in schools Results in a hypothesis of the function of behavior Functional Analysis v. FBA
What would you use for the conditions to test this hypothesis? If Problem behavior occurs: Easy/Preferred Activity w/ Peers Ignore Provide him w/ attention from Peers Work Alone on easy task Remove the task Work w/ Peers on difficult task
What would you use for the conditions to test this hypothesis? If Problem behavior occurs: Easy/Preferred Activity Ignore Provide him w/ attention Work Alone on easy task Remove the task Work w/ teacher on double digit problems
Functional Communication Training: Carr & Durand, 1985 Desired Behavior Typical Consequence Summary of Behavior Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Alternate Behavior
General Assessment if… • Performs at or around grade level • Difficulties primarily in reading, but other subject areas fall within the normal range • Is reading within two to three grades of his/her enrolled level
Standard Extended if… • Student well below grade level in reading • Academic difficulties are generalized (all subject areas) • Benefits from specialized individual supports • General curriculum must be significantly reduced in breadth, depth, & complexity
Scaffold Extended Assessment if… • Performance is significantly impacted due to the nature of disability • Does not read • Has academic, mobility, receptive, & expressive language difficulties that are generalized relies on individual supports & adaptations to access reduced content materials.
IPAD Applications for Communication • Tap to Talk- Free, customizable, • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HK8QdV_sNtQ&list=UU7AdgilJ3U0vA8iGebhz16g&index=2 • Proloquo2Go-$199 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKc1Ss5d1Nw&feature=related • http://www.assistiveware.com/it-really-has-become-his-voice • http://www.assistiveware.com/he-always-understood • iCommunicate- $49.99, can upload pics to make storyboards for activities • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FkSNMLVlmk • First Then- $9.99, • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PDLc0W3_5pk • Story kit- Free, You can record reading of a book and play back • Sounding board-$49.99, create custom boards with symbols or photos, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNRU792h_NQ
Symbols for Communication • Real Object Symbols • Photographs & Pictures • Line Drawing Symbols • Textured Symbols • Letters & Words
AT Communication ContinuumLow Tech Concrete Representations Real Objects • Calendar box • Tangible Symbols • Miniatures • TOBIs (true object based icon)
AT Communication ContinuumLow Tech Communication system with pictures, symbols, letters &/or words
Considerations for Designing Displays • Messages: which are needed, in what contexts • Symbols: depending on the individual & messages • How symbols are displayed: booklets, notebooks, wheelchair trays, scanners • Organizing symbols: context specific, how many per page, etc.
Selecting Symbols—What to look for? • Should make sense to the user & communication partners (assess with range of choices) • Similarity between the symbols & what represents should be obvious • Students sensory modalities should be considered • Symbols introduced gradually building on current communication skills
Using Symbols to Promote Participation/Conversation • Calendar/Schedule Systems • Choice Displays • Remnant (e.g. Movie ticket, scraps from activities) Displays • Conversation Displays
Porter & Burkhart, PODD • Pragmatic Organization Dynamic Display (PODD) • http://www.novita.org.au/Content.aspx?p=683#What_is_PODD • Vocabulary is organized according to communication function and discourse requirements • Simplified Technology by Linda Burkhart • http://www.lburkhart.com/ • Pragmatic branch starters • I like this, I don’t like this, I want something, Quick word/question, I have an idea, I want to show you something… • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ux1KIrz5rpY&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDjVFXu9MZk&feature=related
TEACCH- Structured Systems • http://teacch.com/about-us/what-is-teacch • http://www.interactingwithautism.com/section/treating/teacch • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmxsh3e3qW4
Discussion Time. • Chapter 10 • Teaching Self-Care Skills
Personal & Daily Living Skills • What will we assess? • How will we assess?
Eating Skills Checklist (Browder, 2001) • Eating • Take food from spoon and swallow • Chew food • Choose between two food items • Express desire to eat • Feed self finger foods • Use a napkin • Use a spoon • Eat a sandwich • Pace eating (avoid stuffing mouth) • Spear with a fork • Eat without spilling
Drinking skills checklist • Swallow from a cup held by someone • Choose between two drinks • Hold own glass to drink • Drink from a soda can • Drink from a mug • Drink from a water fountain • Drink through a straw
Dressing/Undressing Checklist • Choose between two clothing options • Select outfit for the day • Choose accessories for personal style • Move arms and lift legs to help in dressing • Communicate when help is needed in dressing • Pull down pants in restroom • Take off clothing (shoes, socks, jacket, shirt, pants, etc.) • Get dressed (button, snap, zip, velcro)
Washing hands or face checklist • Ask for help with washing hands or face • Choose between two types of soap • Determine whether water is comfortable temperature • Participate in washing: moving hands to water, move face on cloth. • Grasp/release paper towel in trash • Wash own hands when told • Initiate washing hands and face
Other grooming • Ask for help with combing/styling hair • Comb/style own hair • Care for nails • Use makeup • Leave restroom groomed for public: • Clothing straight • Zippers & fasteners closed • Hair neat • Hands washed • Face clean • Make up on neatly
Toileting: Designing bowel/bladder management plans • Ask: • Will the student work towards using toilet based on internal cues? • Will student use toilet on a specific time schedule? • Will student use: incontinence products (pull-ups); catheterization, other? • Initiation • Student will take care of needs without prompting? • Prompted ? • Ask for help? • Prompted to ask for help? • Adult will initiate toileting?
Using toilet or alternative methods? • Perform all steps independently? • Prompted with goal of independence? • Interactive; student will perform some steps without prompts? • Interactive; student will be prompted to perform some steps? • Accident management • Student will manage? Prompted to manage? Perform some steps? Adult provide all cleanup?
General Case Design— Why?Determine what to teach and features need to varyto increase generalization. 1. Define the Instructional Universe 2. Define the Range of Relevant Stimulus and Response Variation 3. Select Examples for Teaching & Testing 4. Sequencing Teaching Examples 5. Teaching the Examples 6. Testing with Non-trained Probe Examples
General Case Programming 1. Define the instructional universe (IU).---How? -Person-Centered Planning/ File Review/ IEP 2. Define the range of relevant stimulus & response variation within that IU.— -How? -Task Analysis 3. Select examples for the IU for use in teaching and probe testing.—How? Positive & Negative Examples 4. Sequence teaching examples.---How? Juxtapose maximally different, then minimally different examples. 5. Teach the examples.---How? Using Antecedent & Consequence Strategies 6. Test with non-trained probe examples— How?
Stimulus Control • Stimulus control refers to change in the likelihood of a response when a stimulus is presented. • The stimulus is a signal that if the response is performed, a predictable outcome (consequence) is likely. • If a person responds one way in the presence of a stimulus and another in its absence, than that stimulus is said to “control” behavior. • A traffic light is an example
Stimulus Control • Stimulus control refers to change in the likelihood of a response when a stimulus is presented. • The stimulus is a signal that if the response is performed, a predictable outcome (consequence) is likely. • If a person responds one way in the presence of a stimulus and another in its absence, than that stimulus is said to “control” behavior. • A traffic light is an example Antecedent/Stimulus: Green Light Behavior: Drive or walk across the street
Stimulus control and teaching • For any skill, teach a) what, b) when, c) why. • What = the new response (skill) • When = the stimulus that signals when to perform the new response • Why = what is the likely consequence (reward)
Teaching and Stimulus Control • Define the naturally occurring pattern • Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence • Define what you will “add” to assist learning. • Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence Prompt Extra Reward or Correction
Why is stimulus control important?For each example define a response and its controlling stimulus • Reading • Math • Social initiations • Joining a playground game • Getting help from an adult • Getting a cookie at snack • Following the instruction to “line up”
Ineffective Instruction • Sets the occasion for student failure
No elbowing others No kicking No hitting No pinching No biting No scratching Etc. . . 2+2 is not 1 2+2 is not 2 2+2 is not 3 2+2 is not 5 2+2 is not 6 2+2 is not 7 Etc. . . Teaching Behaviors Behavior: Peer Relations Academic Skill:Addition
Hands and feet to self or Respect others 2+2 = 4 Teaching Behaviors Behavior: Peer Relations Academic Skill: Addition
Instructional Concept #3 Range of Examples Show all the possibilities