Unit 2Chapter 2, Section 3 Articles of Confederation Mr. Young Government
Essential Question • What major weaknesses about the Articles of Confederation led the 1787 Convention to scrap them and write the Constitution?
Articles of Confederation Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQtJNK5_8Uk&feature=related 15 Min.
Confederation Ways Government Distributes Power Regional Authority Regional Authority Central Authority Regional Authority Regional Authority
Articles of Confederation • The Articles of Confederationbasically continued the structure and operation of government as established under the SecondContinental Congress. • By March 1781, all 13states had ratified, or approved, the Articles of Confederation.
Articles of Confederation • Ratified- approved, on March 1781 • States wanted a confederation among the 13 states instead of a strong national government
Government under the Articles • Unicameral- single chamber Congress from which executive positions were chosen • No federal court system • Congress settled disputes among States • Each state had one vote in Congress
Government Under the Articles Cont. • Congress had only powers expressed in the Articles • All other power remained with the States
Powers of Congress under Articles • Make War and Peace • Send and receive ambassadors • Enter into treaties • Raise and equip a navy • Maintain army by help of states • Appoint senior military officers • Fix standard of weights and measures • Regulate Indian affairs • Establish Post offices • Decide certain disputes among states
Weaknesses of the Articles The Articles of Confederation gave Congress power, they still created a weak national government
Weaknesses • Congress did not have the power to levy or collect taxes • It could only raise money by borrowing or requesting money
Weaknesses 2) Congress did not have the power to regulate trade
Weaknesses 3) Congress could not force anyone to obey the laws it passed or abide by the Articles
Weaknesses 4) Laws needed the approval of 9 of 13 states Usually only get 9 or 10, each state only has 1 vote, the 5 smaller states could block the 8 larger states
Weaknesses 5) Amending the articles required all consent of all states • The articles were never amended
Weaknesses 6) Central government had no executive branch • No unity in policy making and no way to coordinate the work of the different committees
Weaknesses 7) No national court system • State courts enforced and interpreted national laws • Difficult to settle disputes among states
Achievements • Greatest achievement was of a land policy for lands west of Appalachia • Individual states ceded or yielded their claims to the central government • Congress enacted two land Ordinances- laws
Land Ordinances • Ordinance of 1785- survey and division of West lands • Northwest Ordinance of 1787- territories to be developed for statehood on equal basis w/old states
Other Achievements • In 1783, negotiated a peace treaty with Great Britain and recognized American Independence • 4 Cabinet departments: Foreign Affairs, War, Marine, and Treasury • Provided full faith and credit to help treat citizens without discrimination
Need for a Stronger Government • States quarrel over boundary lines and deal with foreign nations • 1787 government owed $40 million to foreign governments and Revolutionary war vets
Shays’s Rebellion • Armed groups of farmers closed courts to prevent farm foreclosures • Daniel Shays’s closed the Massachusetts and then gathered a force of 1200 men and advanced to arsenal in Springfield
The Annapolis Convention • Concerned about problems between the states of Maryland and Virginia, called the Mount Vernon Convention to discuss currency, import duties,and navigation
Annapolis Convetion 2) In 1786, in Annapolis, Maryland a convention was called to discuss commerce 3) In 1787 a convention would meet in Philadelphia to revise the Articles, but they would scrap them and it would be called the Constitutional Convention