Chapter 3/Section 2 The Kingdom of Israel
The Israelites Choose a King (pg. 87) • Around 1000 B.C., the Philistines(fih*luh*steens),not the Israelites, were the strongest people living in Canaan. • The Philistines had strong cities and they knew how to make iron tools and weapons. • Fearing the power of the Philistines, many Israelites copied their ways and worshiped their gods.
The 12 tribes often quarreled and finally asked the prophetSamuel to appoint a king to keep the tribes from fighting among themselves and save their religion. • Samuel warned the Israelites against a king, but the Israelites chose Saul (sawl), a warrior-farmer, to be their king. • King Saul displeased God so God chose David, a young shepherd, to be king.
David and Solomon (pgs. 89-90) • David was a famous warrior. • He killed a giant Philistine name Goliath with a slingshot and five smooth stones. • King Saul put David in charge of the army but later grew envious of David and plotted to have him killed. • David hid out in enemy territory until Saul and his three sons were killed. • David finally took the throne in about 1000 B.C.
King David • David drove the Philistines out and conquered other countries to build his empire. • Conquered people had to paytributeto David and he heavilytaxed the Israelites. • David wanted to build a grand temple to house sacred religious objects. • David choseJerusalem(juh*roo*suh*luhm) as his capital dueto its central location. • When David died, his sonSolomon(sahl*uh*muhn) becameking.
Solomon • Many Israelites hated Solomon’s rule because of the high taxes and making young men work in mines. • When Solomon died, the 12 tribes began fighting. • Ten of the tribes moved north and called their nationthekingdom of Israel, withSamariaas its capital. • The other two tribes founded the smaller kingdom ofJudahin the south, withJerusalemas its capital.
A Troubled Time (pgs. 90-92) • After creating the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, many Israelites forgot their religion. • Both kingdoms felt threatened by the Assyrians and the Chaldeans who had created powerful empires in southwest Asia. • In 722 B.C., the Assyrians conquered Israel and dispersed the 10 tribes throughout their empire. • The Israelites lost their religion and were often called the “lost tribes of Israel.”
The Fall of Israel • The Assyrians settled around Samaria and were called Samaritans. • The Samaritans feared Israel’s God would be angry with them for taking the Israelite’s land, so they began following the Israelite’s religion. • The people of Judah believed that they were God’s only people.
The Fall of Judah • The Egyptians conquered the kingdom of Judah in 620 B.C. and the Chaldeans conquered Egypt in 605 B.C. • The Jews joined forces with the Egyptians to conquer the Chaldeans. • In 597 B.C., King Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem and punished the Jews by sending 10,000 Jews to Babylon and appointing a new Jewish king. • In 586 B.C., the Jews revolted against the Chaldeans who crushed Jerusalem, destroyed their temple, and took the king and thousands of Jews to Babylon. • This period is known as the Babylonian Captivity.