Research Paper 2010The Process PreAP English I
Preparation for research one week before: • Set up Google Docs through a gmail account • MLA citations from OWL website • Poet research database homework assignment • Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing with article handout
Library Conduct & Expectations • Two students per table maximum…spread out! • Research independently…you are all researching different poets, so there is no reason to work together or talk to each other • No socializing or “mixing” with students from other classes. • -5 points from your daily grade each time Mrs. Rammos has to say something to you!
Library Day 2 – Begin Research! • Objective and things to remember: • Find at least one source to use for the biographical section of your paper – You will show me your notes for your daily grade at the end of class. • You must do your research with books and reference books only! (No computers – only for online catalog) • Make sure you record page numbers and label where you paraphrase, summarize or quote in your notes.
Library Day 3 – Continue Research for the Biographical Section Objective: • Today you will continue your research over biographical information for your poet. In this section, you must have information from 3 different sources; therefore, your objective today is to complete research for your other 2 sources. You may use another book, research database, or online sources. • Make sure you gather NEW information from the other two sources, not information you already have on your poet or decide what information you are going to use from one source and what information you are going to from the others.
Example of Biographical Section(The following example is to show you how you will use the biographical research to write the biographical section of the paper. This should help guide you in your research today.) David Henry Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts (Magill 1942). Twenty years after he was born in his grandmother’s farmhouse, Thoreau chose to reverse his given names, to become Henry David, even though this was not legally approved (Miller 12). Thoreau, who then went to Harvard, thought the library “was the finest resource the college had to offer" (Miller 16). Stunned by the amount of knowledge the college had to offer, Thoreau took advantage of it and soon was employed as a teacher, pencil maker, historian, tutor, philosopher and a handyman (Miller 2). Henry David Thoreau and his brother John Thoreau reopened the school they attended as children, The Concord Academy, at which they did a great deal of tutoring (Magill 1944). However, his brother passed away as a result of tuberculosis, and the Concord Academy closed. Later, Thoreau contracted tuberculosis after his social experiment in the woods that is famously known as “At Walden Pond.” This transcendentalist masterpiece “[consists] of his reflections on nature during his daily walks and comments on his readings” (Magill 1951). Other than writing journals, Thoreau fought for the rights of all men. Being an abolitionist, he refused to pay his poll tax in protest of slavery. Therefore, he was jailed for one day, but someone paid his back taxes and Thoreau was released. This experience prompted him to write “Civil Disobedience” where he states “If a law is such nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice…then, I say, break the law” (“Henry David Thoreau”). His work inspired leaders like Ghandi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Thoreau eventually succumbed to tuberculosis and died in 1862. He not only left behind two published works but a very influential journal (Magill 1954). Post-mortem, his reputation was very strong and his work so rich that he is called “A man for all seasons” (Miller 20).
Things to remember for today: • Make sure you are recording page numbers and keeping up with what you paraphrase, quote, or summarize • Recommended Databases: Top 4 Databases for Poet Biographies are… Gale - Literature Resource Center - look at the tabs on the results page for biographies Gale - Literature Resources from Gale - look at the tabs on the results page for biographies Facts on File - Bloom's Literary Reference - look at the tabs on the results page for biographies Gale - LitFinder - checkmark only biography when entering subjects
On a piece of notebook paper… • Write down the three sources that you are using for the biographical section of your research paper. Include the title of the book or article, as well as what type of source it is (book, reference book, research database, online). Make sure you put your name and class period on your paper before turning it in! • Also, turn in the Research Database Practice homework that was assigned on Tuesday.
Library Day 3 – Literary Criticism • Your objective for today is to find at least one of the two sources you will use for the Literary Criticism section of your paper. You will show me your notes and sources for this section for your daily grade at the end of class. • You may use: reference books that specifically address Criticism or “Analysis”, research databases (the Literary Criticism tab), or online sources • You may print from the computers or make copies of the pages in books and annotate the sources you find (but you need money to pay for the copies/printing) – this can count as “notes” for this section of the project.
What is literary criticism? • You are researching how literary experts perceive your poet and his/her work. • You need to research common themes, inspiration, structure, or frequently analyzed poems. • Stick to things you understand or make sense to you; remember these experts are published professionals. Some of the material will be challenging and difficult to understand. • When writing this section, you will combine your research with your own conclusions and commentary. A sample paragraph is on the next slide. “Criticism asks what literature is, what it does, and what it is worth." Encyclopedia Britannica
Literary Criticism Sample Paragraph Topic Sentence Often critics find that Frost is a man of many patterns, but has no pattern at all. Frost often addresses nature, but diverts from nature within his actual “nature” poems. According to critic William Scheick, in his poem “October” he is “curiously askew for a poem about the disconcerting approach of winter” (Scheick). Frost views nature as “antagonistic but he likes it”; nature is not only a force to be reckoned with, but gives us “purpose in life” (Amano). Although some may call this spiritual, with nature involved it leaves the reader with ambiguity, trying to discern the patterns. According to one critic, the lack of pattern could infer the poet's “own inner life, possibly self knowledge" and that the poet "is acquainted but does not know" his inner self well (Amano). Maybe the explication of his poems will never reveal a pattern, remaining “clear on its surface but also more complex upon reflection” (Scheick); however, the fact that there are no patterns – is in fact a pattern. Works Cited: Amano, Kyoko. "Frost's Acquainted with the Night." The Explicator 65.1 (2006): 39+. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. Scheick, William J. "Frost's October." The Explicator 62.2 (2004): 96+. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 25 Mar. 2010.
Due at the end of class today: • At least one source and notes over literary criticism complete for a grade. I will record your grade the last 5 minutes of class. • Reminder: Sentence Structure Extra Credit due tomorrow!
Library Day 5 – Finish Literary Criticism Research • Your objective for today is to find the second source you will use for the Literary Criticism section of your paper. You will show me your notes and sources for this section for your daily grade at the end of class. • There will be another class in the center section of the library. You may work on computers or in the side sections. Keep in mind it may be loud and distracting which means you are not to add to that by talking. If you have a question, raise your hand and I will come to you.
Homework for the Weekend • Find the two poems you will analyze in the analysis section of your paper – You will show me the copies of the two poems and your poem citations. *You will need hardcopies of your poems for the appendix of your paper. • You may find your poems in Books, Research Databases, or Online sources • When searching for poems, look for poems that have similar poetic elements because you will analyze both poems and their use of the same elements.
For Example • If my poet were Edgar Allan Poe and I chose to analyze “To Helen” and “Annabel Lee”, I would analyze how Poe romanticizes the idea of women through allusions borrowed from mythology, fairytales, and folklore. (Paragraph 1) • I would also conclude in my analysis that Poe uses images of the sea as a means to travel back in time and return to his idea of peace and comfort. (Paragraph 2) • Do you see my topic sentences and focus for this section of the essay?
Where do I start? • You need to complete detailed TP-CASTT analysis of each poem • Compare pyramids for similarities or ideas that you can develop in this section of the paper
Library Day 6 • Wrap-up Research Day: Make sure you have at least 5 sources to use in your paper with complete notes and citations: two print sources (books/reference books), articles from the research databases, online sources • Make sure you have a way to save your paper components all in one place once we start writing (google.docs, flashdrive, h://drive) and that your turnitin.com account is ready to go! No excuses!
Thesis Statements Step 1 Let the writing process begin!
Thesis Statements • You need a focus before we begin the writing process. • What is a thesis? • A thesis statement declares what you intend to prove. A good thesis statement makes the difference between a thoughtful research project and a simple retelling of facts.
Thesis Statements Continued • Thesis Statement Example: • Emily Dickinson often reveals parallels of her life through her poetry, combining ambiguity with her creative poetic writing style; she crosses boundaries of diverse punctuation and diction to bring forth many tragic themes through a nonconventional format that left her life a mystery to many. • Do we know the main topic/point of the paper? • Where does this sentence go? (In the introduction) • Get to the point of your paper, but make it evident to the reader what your paper will be about. Your thesis can be more than one sentence and it needs to be insightful.
Can your thesis statement change throughout the writing process? • Yes, your thesis statement can change; however, you need a starting point. • Based off of your research and notes right now, make a claim about your poet and decide what direction you want to go as a writer. • Please use the thesis worksheet provided to create your thesis. You will write your final thesisat the bottom and turn in to me for approval next class. • I’m here to guide you, but remember YOU are the writer and YOU make choices about YOUR paper. I will not write this paper for you – I did not complete research on your author.
Works Cited Page Step 2 MLA Format
Works Cited Page: What is MLA? • Modern Language Association • Collegiate expectation for documentation of borrowed sources in writings relating to literature, humanities, and language. • Visit the following website: http://www.mla.org/style
Works Cited Page What is a Works Cited Page? • It is a page that displays all of your sources with correct citations according to MLA format. • The Modern Language Association continuously updates the format. Make sure you use the guidelines for the 2009 MLA Format for all citations (it is the most recent).
Format • The Works Cited page must: • be typed in 12 pt. Times New Roman font • be double-spaced with no extra space between citations • have the title, Works Cited – centered, not underlined, bolded, bigger font, etc. – just like the rest of the text! • includes a list of all sources used to create the actual text of the research paper (poems too!) • have citations in alphabetical order by the first word of each citation • use a “hanging indent” if the citation goes to a second or subsequent line • italicize book titles and use “quotation marks” around article titles • use correct punctuation…every period, colon, comma counts!! • not include URLs in citations • include Print or Web in a citation
Works Cited Page Example # 1 Notice the citations without authors – they are still in alphabetical order Works Cited “Croatia.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Micropedia. New York: Penguin, 1991. 2:192- 195. Print. Eco, Umberto. Foucault’s Pendulum. San Diego: Harcourt, 1989. Print. Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography and Other Writings. Ed. Kenneth Silverman. New York: Penguin, 1986. Print. Harrison, Patricia. Personal Interview. 19 Feb. 1993. Kermode, Frank. “Criticism Without Machinery.” Literary Reflections, by R.W.B. Lewis. New York Times Book Review, 11 July 1993. Print. Leland, John. “The Impolitic: Fashion and its Critics Sell the Same Stereotypes.” Newsweek, 16 June 1996. Print. “The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)”. Web. 12 Feb. 2008. Notice if you go to a second line in your citation, you should indent the second line Remember the new MLA updates – make sure you type Web or Print, italicize book titles, and do not include URLs Notice the date format above
Works Cited Page Example # 2 • Example # 2 (Please look at the example we copied for you from the OWL website) **HINT: When you compile your Works Cited page, if it does not look exactly like the sample provided, something is wrong with your Works Cited page!
What if I need additional help? To see a list of criteria for an MLA Works Cited page visit: Works Cited Page Notes Link Or The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)
Grading Guide for Works Cited Page Your grade for the Works Cited Page will be based off of the following criteria: • MLA Formatting and Guidelines for a Works Cited Page – Did you follow instructions? Do you have any formatting errors? Is your paper formatted according to MLA guidelines? • Minimum of 5 Sources (this includes the citations for your two poems and the required sources)
Works Cited Page – Independent • Your turn: Please gather all of your source citations from your notes and begin typing your Works Cited Page • ALL sources should go on this page, including the sources you got your poems from • If you add more sources from now until the end of our research paper, please add them on for your final submission • Your Works Cited page is due next class. Please bring a hardcopy to class • Make sure your google docs and turnitin.com accounts are set up and ready to go
MLA Works Cited Rubric Typed in 12 pt. Times New Roman font ______/10 1” margins on the top, bottom and sides ______ /10 Title = Works Cited, centered ______/10 Source citations are aligned on the left _______/10 Sources in alphabetical order _______/10 Included all of the required source information in MLA format, including new updates with no citation errors _______/10 Used correct punctuation ______/10 Hanging indent - every line after the first line of the citation is indented _______/10 Entire Works Cited Page is Double Spaced _______/10 Used at least 5 sources unless noted______/10 GRADE: __________
Biographical Section Step 3: Part I of your research paper
Biographical Paragraphs Biographical Section: • Your biographical section should be no more than one - two paragraphs. Include only the most salient (that is, the most important) information. • This section must include information from at least three different sources. You may not simply paraphrase one source, no matter how good it is. Essentially copying the information from another source is a pointless endeavor.
Biographical Section Continued • Can I include interesting quotes that my author said? Yes, please do! • Can I include facts that I found interesting? Yes, you are the writer – you make the choices! • Do I use “I believe”, “I concluded” and add my own opinion?Avoid phrases with personal pronouns; however, you can add your own opinion without using personal pronouns – yes, draw conclusions about your author and add your own commentary, but remember it is a formal academic paper, not a personal encounter with the author. Do not refer to your author by their first name – he/she is not your BFF!
Citing Sources – Parenthetical Citations • Remember that you completed research and all of your information and ideas came from your research; therefore, even though you combine your own writing with your research notes, you still have to give credit within your paper • To cite a source within your paper, you must use a PARENTHETICAL CITATION: an abbreviated reference to the complete citation on your Works Cited page in parentheses at the end of the information in the paragraph
Example Citing Sources: • Coulthard sees the story written to show our world’s hunger, to execute and “fulfills a deep and horrifying need” (Coulthard 27). While Coulthard argues that the story’s gruesomeness meets our wants, Jennifer Hicks argues that maybe Jackson was “looking into the future of the American society” that is obsessed with reports of “dysfunctional families, dysfunctional individuals, murder and mayhem” (Hicks 5). She feels that “The Lottery” is ahead of its time and that maybe Shirley Jackson was giving us a peek into the future of us not even wincing when we see someone murdered. These are just a couple of examples of critics who view “The Lottery” as a “wake up call” to our society, but there are still several different views of the short story (“The Wisher” ). * Notice this source does not have an author; therefore, the student cited the first two words. She also put the title in quotation marks since it was a short story title.
Basic rules for proper parenthetical source citation: 1. The first word that should appear in the source citation should correspond to the first word of the corresponding entry as it is on your Works Cited Page. 2. A page number is required when the corresponding source has page numbers (all books and reference books). An interview, research database, or web information, for example will not require a page number. 3. If the first word of the source citation corresponds to the first word of two or more entries on the works cited page, then additional clarifying information is needed. You might include the first word of the book title…For example (“Edgar Allan Poe”; American) ; “Edgar Allan Poe”; Modern). 4. If you use a direct quotation, the parenthetical citation must go immediately after the closing quotation marks, even if it lands in the middle of the sentence. If you are summarizing or paraphrasing, the parenthetical citation goes at the end of the sentence.
What do you do if there is no author name in your citation? • If your citation does not have an author, you will include the first few (usually two) words of your citation from your Works Cited Page. • Example Below: These are just a couple of examples of critics who view “The Lottery” as a “wake up call” to our society, but there are still several different views of the short story (“The Wisher”). * Notice this source does not have an author; therefore, the student cited the first two words. The student also put the title in quotation marks since it was a short story title/article title.
Biographical Section – Credit to sources • Even if you paraphrase or summarize a source, you must give credit or it is considered plagiarism! • If you copied notes from a source and wrote them word for word, make sure you put quotation marks around them and give credit at the end of the sentence – they are not your words!
Grading Guide for Biographical Section • You give credit to the source/author and avoid plagiarism • Your citations are formatted correctly according to MLA format • You cite at least 3 differentsources that appear on your Works Cited Page • You use a variety of sentence structure tools, including complex sentences (You will not receive an “A” on this section if every sentence starts with “He was, He was, He is, He was etc.”)
Biographical Section Preparation: Your turn • Now look at your Works Cited page. I want you to write down using parentheses how you will cite them in your paper. For example, if my citation was: • “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry.” Masterplots II. Pasadena, California: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1992. Volume 2: 473. Print. • My citation will be (“Crossing Brooklyn”) because this example reflects how I will write it in my paper. If my citation was: • Miller, James E. "Song of Myself." The Walt Whitman Archives. 1995. The Walt Whitman Encyclopedia. Web. 24 Mar. 2009. • My citation will be (Miller). *Make sure you understand that in your paper, you will have to include page numbers...example (Miller 5).
Rough Draft Due next class for Biographical Section • Your typed rough draft of the biographical section is due tomorrow for a daily grade. We will revise and edit this section tomorrow. After we revise and edit this section, we will go to the computer lab to make corrections; therefore, please make sure you have a way to access your paper (flashdrive or google docs recommended!) • 12 point Times New Roman Font ONLY! Double space and indent paragraphs! • This does not take the place of your introduction...we will write the intro and conclusion at the end.
Graded Works Cited • Pick up your graded Works Cited page from the front table • Look over the notes and missed points on the rubric • You must fix all of the issues before resubmitting it with the final draft of your biographical section
Biographical Revising and Editing • Spell out any number 0 - 100, excluding dates (keep dates the same – do not spell out) • Do not use contractions (Example - change: wasn’t to was not) • Do not refer to your poet by their first name • Do not use exclamation marks • Avoid informal language (remember diction is just as important to the writer as it is for the reader) • Place quotation marks around poem titles, italicize book titles
Sentence Structure How can we combine the following sentences: • Lewis Carroll contemplated numerous titles before finally settling on Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. • He hired an illustrator for the Alice books. • He published the books in 1863. • He wrote the adventures to entertain children. • Carroll received criticism for his serious poetry, but was “praised for his nonsense and humorous works”.
Sentence Structure Continued • Review each sentence and find a way to combine a few of them. • Remember to cut out the “fluff” in your writing • Use your sentence structure tools – they are your friends!
Writing • Did you use your own commentary in support of your research or are your paragraphs simply regurgitated facts? • Do your paragraph(s) flow and are they organized? • Do you cover enough material to give me a glimpse into your poet’s life?
MLA Citations • Do you have 3 different sources cited in your paper and are they formatted correctly according to MLA and your works cited page? • Example: (Miller 2) • Example: (“The Well”) • Example: ( Walt Whitman; American 4)
Biographical Section • Your final draft for the biographical paragraph is due next class period for a quiz grade. You will submit your paper to turnitin.com and bring a printed copy to class. Attach your works cited page (corrected and updated) behind your biographical section when you bring your final copy to class. • Make sure you use the MLA heading, title = Biographical Section, 12 point Times New Roman Font ONLY! Double space and indent paragraphs! (Bring literary criticism notes next class – we will begin the next section)