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The Research Paper

The Research Paper. Hawaii Career & Technical Education Performance- Based Assessment CTE PBA April 28 & 29, 2014. The Components of PBA. Research Paper Written Tests Product/Performance Task Oral Presentation Topic announced November 22, 2013. What a Research Paper Could Be:.

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The Research Paper

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  1. The Research Paper • Hawaii Career & Technical Education Performance- Based Assessment • CTE PBA April 28 & 29, 2014

  2. The Components of PBA Research Paper Written Tests Product/Performance Task Oral Presentation Topic announced November 22, 2013

  3. What a Research Paper Could Be: Other classes may require a research paper. Might have different guidelines: such as purpose, length, formatting Topic focus might be: to compare and contrast, to argue, to solve a problem.

  4. CTE Research Paper • CTE Research Paper will INFORM the reader and author on a given topic. • CCSS- Informational Text Reading/Writing • Research that Informs: • Presents Topic • Expands the Knowledge Base • Offers a Perspective • Builds necessary background for PBA scenario

  5. Pay Attention to the Topic • Topic: "Advancements in Emergency Medical Response and Trauma Care". • Research should include • The Evolution of medical advancements which have impacted the field of Emergency Medical Response. • A Timeline of these events should be included in the appendix. • And conclude with the future direction of Trauma Care and its effect on the health care industry. • All research must be supported with evidence.

  6. Understand Topic Requirement • Research Topic • Choose research that Supports the Topic • Reliable Sources • Wikipedia- • not reliable • broad brushstroke of topic • look at references attached – which can help with starting the research process

  7. TIPS • Start Early • Collect research, references • Organize them, so can refer to them periodically • Cannot write a well written ten-page paper in one week. • Drafts • 2 people are writing which means writing styles have to appear as one consistent voice.

  8. Analysis of Topic • Analysis of research topic to INFORM the reader (and author) is the main intent. • Author will gain in topic knowledge, gain topic perspective • to prepare for PBA scenario

  9. Why Format is Important • Readers • Gains understanding as they read • Organizes their thoughts as they read • Citations/references can be used in their own work • Authors • Gains understanding as they write • Organizes thoughts as they write • Cite all works for research- • Honors researchers’/work/words • avoids plagiarism

  10. American Psychology Association Format Overview A few important APA guidelines will be expected on CTE Research Paper

  11. Standard Format: Standard 8.5” x 11” paper 1” margins on all sides Double-spaced 12 point type Times New Roman font No auto-hyphenation

  12. Structure: • Title Page • Table of Contents • Abstract • Main Body • Introduction • Body • Conclusion • References • Appendices

  13. Title Page: • Full title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. • No more than 12 words in length • May take up one or two lines • Double-spaced • School Name, Students’ Names, Head Teacher, Principal • Submission Date

  14. Table of Contents: • Table of Contents Centered- Underline • Abstract- Appendix with page numbers. • Use a Tab leader …. Set margin to insure that pages are listed within 1” margin. • TIP: Go to Home, paragraph, then tab choice to set this up.

  15. Abstract: Page number flush top right. This is the first page to number. Start with page 2. “Abstract” centered on the first line. Beginning with the next line (do not indent), a concise summary of the key points of your paper. Single paragraph, double-spaced. Between 150 and 250 words.

  16. Body Format: • Page Number: Flush Right Top Page • Indent paragraphs ½” • Headings • Start with Introduction- • Heading does not have to state “introduction” but content should indicate that paragraph is an introduction: grabs the reader in a unique way and presents topic and main ideas of paper. • Citations in body. “In Text” citations. • End with Conclusion- • Heading does not have to state “conclusion” but content should indicate that paragraph is the conclusion: Strong, clear, summarizes main points that support topic and offers insight.

  17. Headings: Helps readers find key points and organizes the author’s thoughts APA Style uses five levels of headings:

  18. Writing Effectively: VOICE: • Write in third person: “it” “he/she” “they” • Avoid first person : “I” “we” • Avoid second person: “you” “your” • Reducing Bias in Language • Be specific: “11-17 year old females” • Be sensitive to labels: “Older adults”

  19. Writing Effectively: Use active voice: • Active: The researchers asked participants questions. • Passive: The participants were asked questions by the researchers. • KISS method • Clear and concise, avoid poetic language • Use relevant and reputable source material

  20. Numbers in words: • Use words to express any number that begins a sentence, title, or text heading. • Ten participants answered the questionnaire. • Forty-eight percent of the sample showed an increase; 2% showed no change. • Common fractions • one fifth of the class • two-thirds majority • Universally accepted usage • The Twelve Apostles • Five Pillars of Islam

  21. Primary sources: an original object or document; the raw material or first-hand information. • Historical and legal documents • Eyewitness accounts • Results of experiments • Statistical data • Empirical studies and research. • Scholarly articles or papers delivered at conferences

  22. Secondary sources:something written about a primary source. • Comments, interpretations, or discussions about original material or work • Articles in newspapers or popular magazines • Book or movie reviews • Journal articles that discuss or evaluate someone else's original research

  23. Tertiary sources: an index and/or textual condensation of primary and secondary sources. • Almanacs • Guide books • Survey articles • Timelines • User guides • Dictionary • Encyclopedia • Textbooks

  24. What to cite? Reliable sources Source supports main idea that you are writing on. Start to analyze research and “build/write” the paper including citations that help to inform the topic.

  25. What to Cite • Always Cite: Words or ideas from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium • Information through interviewing, conversing, or corresponding with another person • Exact words or a unique phrase • Any reprinted diagrams, illustrations, charts, pictures, or other visual materials • Electronically-available digital media, including images, audio, video, or executable files

  26. Definition of Plagiarize • Plagiarize: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own :  use (another's production) without crediting the source (from http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

  27. In-text Citations: • Helps readers locate the cited source in the References list • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: • J.R.R. Tolkien • Italicize or underline titles of long works such as books, movies, or albums: • Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone • Iron Man • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon • Put quotation marks around titles of short works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections or song titles: • "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds”

  28. In-text Citations: • When citing or paraphrasing a source, provide Author’s name and date of publication in parenthesis: • The Mayans were centrally located (Jones, 1984). • According to Jones (1984), the Mayans were centrally located. • In 1984, Jones concluded the Mayans were centrally located.

  29. In-text Citations: • When the parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list • Include the author’s name, the year of publication, separated by a semi-colon. • (Kachru, 2005; Smith, 2008)

  30. In-text Citations: • When citing a work with two authors, use “and” in between authors’ name in the signal phrase yet “&” between their names in parenthesis. • According to researchers Manning and Elway (2007), “the spiraling effect makes the ball travel with greater velocity” (p. 16). • Some researchers argue that “the spiraling effect makes the ball travel with greater velocity” (Manning & Elway, 2007, p. 16).

  31. In-text Citations: • When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis. • (Benjarvis, Green, & Ellis, 2012) • In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. • (Benjarvis et al., 2012)

  32. In-text Citations: • When citing multiple authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names. • (B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)

  33. In-text Citations: • When citing interviews, letters, etc., include communicator’s name, “personal communication”, and date. • Do not include personal communication in the reference list. • J.R. Smith stated that many students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002). • Many students had difficulties with APA style (J. R. Smith, personal communication, November 3, 2002).

  34. In-text Citations: • When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading. • According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

  35. In-text Citations: • When citing an organization, mention the organization the first time when you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation. • The data collected by Food and Drug Administration (2006) confirmed that consuming gluten increased blood sugar levels. • If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. • In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed … FDA’s experts tested…

  36. In-text Citations: • When citing a work of unknown author, use the source’s full title in the signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. • Put titles of articles and chapters in quotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports. • According to “Monitoring the Dead” (2011), • (“Monitoring,” 2011)

  37. Most common- In-text Citations: • When citing or paraphrasing a source, provide Author’s name and date of publication in parenthesis: • The Mayans were centrally located (Jones, 1984). • According to Jones (1984), the Mayans were centrally located. • In 1984, Jones concluded the Mayans were centrally located.

  38. Quotations: • Reproduce word for word material directly quoted from another author’s work. • Provide the author, year, and specific page(s) in the text citation. • Source must be included in the reference list. • If quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate in text and enclose with quotation marks. • Caruth (1996) has stated that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).

  39. Quotations: • If the quotation is more than 40 words, it should be treated as a block quotation without quotation marks. • Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

  40. Reference v Bibliography: • Reference list: • Contains all sources cited in the text of a paper. • Organized alphabetically by author’s surname. • Bibliographies: • Includes sources that were consulted but not cited. • Annotated description of each source. • May be organized chronologically or by subject.

  41. CTE Research- References: • Center “References” at the top of the page. • Double-space reference entries flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines • Order entries alphabetically by the author’s surnames • Invert authors’ names (last name first, followed by initials) • Alphabetize reference list entries by the last name of the first author of each work

  42. References: • Capitalize all major words in journal titles • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.

  43. Appendix Materials: Graphs, charts, tables Supplemental Materials: links to audio/video clips, computer coding, animation, oversized tables, color figures.

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