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The Research Paper

The Research Paper

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The Research Paper

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  1. The Research Paper

  2. Plagiarism and Fabrication Plagiarismis the inclusion of someone else’s words, ideas or data as one’s own work. Examples: • Whenever one quotes another person’s actual words without citing • Whenever one paraphrases another person’s idea, opinion, or theory • Whenever one borrows facts, statistics, or other illustrative materials – unless the information is common knowledge. • Ex: Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941. • Ex: Joe Shmodied in the Pearl Harbor attack. If you submit ideas that are not your own, you must submit the source of that information. This is not just for quotes, but for paraphrasing and summarizing as well. If words are used verbatim, you put quotes around the statement.

  3. Plagiarism and Fabrication • Fabrication is the used of invented information or the falsification of research or other findings with the intent to deceive. Examples: • Citing information not taken from the source indicated • Listing sources in a bibliography that were not used • Inventing data or source information for research or other academic work • Submitting work that you did not do yourself Plagiarism examples:

  4. The Research Paper:Introduction

  5. Joining the Conversation What is this “conversation” and how do I join it? You will learn to: • Take ownership of your project • Understand research writing processes • Learn how to work with sources • Manage your time

  6. Exploring and Narrowing Your Topic: Create a Research Plan to give you direction 1. Who can help me learn more about my topic? 2. What questions do I have about my topic? 3. What settings can I observe to learn more about my topic? 4. What resources can I search or browse to learn more about my topic? 5. How can I keep track of information I collect as I explore my topic? • Notecards • Notebook • Word processor (save in multiple places!)

  7. Writing an Argumentative Research Paper • Recall what you know about writing a commentary An argument should include: 1. A clear position on the issue (thesis) 2. Evidence/support -Opinion -Research/Facts/Statistics/Testimonies 3. Counterarguments and refutations 4. A concise conclusion opening up your argument to larger implications

  8. The Research Paper:Reading Sources

  9. Reading Sources Critically: • Ask questions as you read – don’t just accept what the reading tells you • Avoid reading with psychological standards (egocentrism, sociocentrism, etc.) • Be aware of logical fallacies • Note relevant sources used in the source you are reading • Examine implications of what you read for the project – how will the source help you? • Be aware of unusual information • Look for similarities and differences in the sources you read

  10. Keep your Research Paper in Mind… • Is it necessary to include this source or would it overwhelm the writing? • Consider what new ideas the source presents that other sources haven’t • Consider if the source would be persuasive/convincing to your readers • Look for sources that may be a good model for your own research paper • Note how the information will help accomplish your purpose • Support your preliminary thesis • Show ideas that differ from yours

  11. Annotate/Read actively: • Identify important passages – make note of them • Write your reactions to ideas and arguments – can later turn into paragraphs of your paper • Write questions in the margins or on your note cards • Identify key ideas and information of the source – what is the main idea? • Note the supporting evidence used in the source • Appeals to authority – often presented in the form of quotations by experts in the field • Appeals to logic – often in the form of “If – then” reasoning • Empirical evidence – numerical or statistic evidence

  12. Annotate/Read actively continued: • Note ideas that you don’t understand and consider other sources to improve your understand • Note ideas that are similar or different than other sources • Be aware of the type of source you are reading • For example: an opinion column should not be used as an objective source • Best/Safest source would be a peer-reviewed academic journal • It has been examined by experts in the field

  13. The Research Paper:Evaluating Sources

  14. Primary vs. Secondary Sources: • A primary source is an original work or evidence provided directly by an observer of an event • A primary source has not been tainted by the opinion of another person • Examples: • Works of art or literature (poem, short story, novel, painting, musical recordings, etc.) • Personal writings (diaries, journals, memoirs, autobiographies) • Reports, photographs, films, audio recordings of an event • Physical artifacts associated with an event (the book gives an example of a weapon used in a crime scene) • A secondary sourceis a source that comments on or interprets an event, using a primary source as evidence • A secondary source is okay to use, but remember that you are seeing a primary source/issue through the eyes of other people • To avoid problems with this tainted lens, consider what factors may have affected the author’s argument or analysis

  15. Evaluating sources: • Look at evidence to see if it is reasonable: • Avoid personal websites or blogs – tend to be very subjective sources • Is the evidence convincing to you? If not, your readers will probably not buy it either. • Is the source of evidence provided? • Is the right kind of evidence offered? For example, does the author rely on different types of evidence or just one? • Is enough evidence offered?

  16. Evaluate the author: • How do the author’s biases affect the arguments, ideas, and information in the source? • Also consider the publication’s bias • Who is the author affiliated with? What organization (if any) does the author belong to? • How knowledgeable is the author about the topic? What makes the author an “expert” on the topic? Also consider: • The date of publication – this is especially applicable if you are writing a report in the field of science • Comprehensiveness – does the source provided a complete and balanced view of the topic?

  17. The Research Paper:How to Format Each Paragraph

  18. Steps/Components of the Paper: • Outline (see handout) • Thesis statement (we will do this later) • Opening paragraph (4 parts - see handout for sample) • Lead • Original thought • Direct quote • Thesis statement

  19. Steps/Components of the Paper: • Body paragraphs – follow this format: • Topic sentence: Restate research question in a statement format • Original thought (info to answer question) • Evidence (citation/quote) from a source • Have at least one source per paragraph • Conclusion sentence • See handout for example

  20. Steps/Components of the Paper: • Conclusion paragraph (4 parts - see handout for sample) • Original thought (begin sentence with a transition word) • Direct quote to support original thought • Restatement of thesis • Final original thought/Call to action • What do you want your readers to be left thinking after reading the paper? • Works Cited page – will be discussed on MLA Day!

  21. The Research Paper:MLA Citations

  22. How to Format Works Cited Page: • *See handout for general rules • Important things worth mentioning twice… • Title your page Works Cited – Times New Roman size 12 • Alphabetize by the first word listed in each citation (with the exception of a, an, and the). • Every entry should end with a period (.)

  23. How to Format Citations Based on Source Type: Book: One author Last, First M. Book. City Published: Publisher, Year Published. Print. Carley, Michael K. 1939: The Alliance That Never Was and the Coming of World War II. Chicago: Dee, 1999. Print.

  24. How to Format Citations Based on Source Type: Book: More than one author Last, First M., and First Last. Book. City Published: Publisher, Year Published. Print. Carley, Michael K., and Jody Jones. 1939: The Alliance That Never Was and the Coming of World War II. Chicago: Dee, 1999. Print.

  25. How to Format Citations Based on Source Type: Book: Chapter from an Edited Book Last, First M. Section/Chapter Title. Book/ Anthology. Ed. First M. Last. Edition. City Published: Publisher, Year Published. Page Range. Print. Melville, Herman. Hawthorne and His Mosses. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1989. 5-25. Print.

  26. How to Format Citations Based on Source Type: Online Database (Journal) Last, First M. “Article.” JournalVolume.Issue(Year): Pages. Database. Web. Day Month Year. Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. “Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors for Data Mining.” Annals of Operations Research263.1 (2008): 5-18. EBSCOHost. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

  27. How to Format Citations Based on Source Type: Website Last, First M. “Website Article.” Website.Publisher, Day Month Year. Web. Day Month Year. Friedland, Lois. “Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Trips.” New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

  28. How to Format Citations Based on Source Type: Personal Interview Interviewee. Personal Interview. Day Month Year. Hesch, Kara . Personal Interview. 9 Dec. 2012.

  29. How to Format In-Text Citations: Your in-text citation should always include the first element of the citation of the Works Cited page. For example, if the first element listed for a source is the author, you will put the author and page number in the in-text citation: (Carley 30). There should be NO punctuation used here, and the period goes OUTSIDE of the parenthesis.

  30. How to Format In-Text Citations: If no author is listed (common for websites), you go to the next element of the Works Cited page citation for that source. For a website, this would be the article title: (“Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Trips”). NEVER put the URL in the in-text citation!

  31. The Research Paper:Using Sources Properly

  32. Using Direct Quotes: • Write down the EXACT quote and the page it appears on • You may want to quote when the statement strongly supports (or disagrees) with your idea • Use a quote when it enhances your paper and you don’t think your paraphrase could do it justice • Be sure to indicate it is a quote by using quotation marks • Also, be sure to introduceyour quote • For example: • As Smith states in her book Untitled, “……” (33).

  33. Using Direct Quotes: • Quote with Ellipsis (…) • Use an ellipsis when you don’t need to quote the whole statement to get your point across • The ellipsis is used to eliminate words that aren’t necessary • Example: “Here too snow lay on the trees all around and it was bitterly cold…they spent most of the day inside the tent, huddled for warmth around the bright blue flames” (Rowling, The Deathly Hallows 364). • This example cut out the phrase “but they were at least protected from the wind” • Use 4 dots (….) when deleting a full sentence or more from a passage

  34. Using Direct Quotes: • Use brackets when adding a word to a quote • Example: “He [Harry Potter] is a wizard.” • “Harry Potter” was not part of the original statement • This is especially useful when a pronoun isn’t clear • Use “sic” when the quote contains a misspelled word so the reader knows it is not your mistake • Example: “Barak Oboma [sic] is the 44th president of the United States.” • Barak Oboma is spelled wrong (should be BarackObama)

  35. Using Direct Quotes: • Indent a quote that goes longer than four lines when you first typed it out in your paper • Example: • The words on the page would go like this. As Ms. Hesch said in her text Using Direct Quotes, • Then the quote would be indented one margin, but can be double- spaced still. The whole quote would be indented, not just the first line. Also, it is only indented on the left side. The in-text citation for the quote would be a little different. The parenthesis goes AFTER the period. Also, you don’t use quotation marks. (3) • Once the quote is over, come back over to the left margin. • I strongly advise not to have too many long quotes in your paper. The only time you should use them is when the quote conveys information that cannot be abridged by you (using the ellipsis).

  36. Paraphrasing: • Paraphrasing is restating a passage or statement in your own words • Your research paper will include a great deal of paraphrasing – use it when a direct quote is not entirely necessary • Points to remember when paraphrasing: • To avoid plagiarism, focus on key ideas in the passage • Still need to cite when paraphrasing • Paraphrasing too closely is plagiarism (for example, adding or changing words, including using a thesaurus to change a word)

  37. Paraphrasing: Practice Paraphrase the following paragraph: "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity.“ From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon (May 1990):17.

  38. The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law, and the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local bar where liquor could be had. They were the years when organized crime ruled the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do anything against it. Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread throughout the land, and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, and Count Basie became the heroes of the young. The flapper was born in the twenties, and with her bobbed hair and short skirts, she symbolized, perhaps more than anyone or anything else, America's break with the past. From Kathleen Yancey, English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989): 25.

  39. Summarizing: • A summary is a brief statement of what a source says. You are taking a great deal of information and narrowing it down to a few sentences. • This will be part of your annotation for your annotated bibliography. • Practice: • Write a brief summary of your favorite novel or movie. Be prepared to share with the class.

  40. The Research Paper:Annotated Bibliography

  41. Purpose of Annotated Bibliography: • The annotated bibliography as a whole constitutes a review of the literature • Illustrates the quality of research that you have done • Provide examples of the types of sources available to you • Explore the subject for further research • ******************************************************Factors to consider when writing annotated bibiography: • Describe the content (focus) of the item • Describe the usefulness of the item • Discuss any limitations that the item may have • Describe what audience the item is intended for

  42. More Factors to Consider… • Evaluate the methods (research) used in the item • Evaluate the reliability of the item • Discuss the author’s background • Discuss any conclusions the author may have made • Describe your reaction to the item • Evaluate the usefulness of the source for your project • BIBLIOGRAPHIES SHOULD BE IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER BY THE FIRST WORD LISTED IN THE CITATION.