The Research Paper • Expository Research Paper • Bibliography Cards and Outline • Five to seven paragraph paper • 3 – 5 pages typed (double spaced) • Works Cited page
Outline - Guidelines • Reflect on your thesis sentence (3 pts) • Organize your research into main topics and subtopics • Check for logical progression • Check for weak areas – Do you need more info/more research? ***KEEP YOUR RESEARCH SAFE (folder)
Introduction I. Introduction A. Broad topic – Greek mythology B. Narrow topic – God and goddesses C. Thesis – Athena was feared in ancient Greek times as evidenced by her stories with Hera, Arachne, and Odysseus.
Introduction - Example • Grab readers’ attention with a quote or fact The myths of ancient Greek times are fascinating and somewhat bizarre. • Provide background The Greeks believed that their own destinies were controlled by the actions of the gods and goddesses. They created stories of heroes and monsters to explain the unknown. They created imaginative characters and themes to relate stories to every reader. One of the most popular goddesses was Athena. • Thesis Athena was the most admired goddess in Greek mythology because of her birth, family, and relationships.
Transfer research to writing – Cite – Cite – Cite • Paraphrase – put into your own words • Zeus and his brothers and sisters defeated the Titans (Fischer 123). • Quote – copy word for word and put in quotes • “Cronus’ children helped Zeus overthrow the Titans and become the supreme god” (Fischer 123). • Lead in – • Jeff Fischer stated, “Cronus’ children helped Zeus overthrow the Titans and become the supreme god” (123).
Plagiarism – Do not copy • Paraphrase – put into your own words “The mythology of ancient Greeks included a dazzling array of gods, demigods, monsters, and humans.”
Bolton, Lesley. The Everything Classical Mythology Book. Avon, MA : Adams Media Corporation, 2002. Print. How to cite in your written paper: (Bolton 173).
Parenthetical References • Books require author and page (Bolton 173). • If there is no author, use the title (Handbook of Classical Myths 173) • Databases require author and paragraph number (Nardo, par. 21). • If there is no author, use the title. (“Athena,” par. 21)
Special Situations - Citing • Bib. Cards begin with the same title. (“Athena”) – add next title • (“Athena,” UXL, par. 23). • You paraphrase using two sources – give both citations • (Nardo 12; Kelly 141).
“Athena." U*X*L Encyclopedia of World Mythology. Vol. 1. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 85-88. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. How to cite in your written paper: "Athena." Greek and Roman Mythology. Don Nardo. Ed. Barbette Spaeth. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2002. 78-79. The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. How to cite in your written paper:
Write – Use your Outline • Birth • Zeus’ daughter • Triton and Pallas’ daughter • Poseidon’s daughter
Body Paragraph - Example Athena was Zeus’ favorite daughter because of her unusual birth. Sources say, “Athena sprang from Zeus’ head fully grown and armed” (“Athena,” UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology, par. 2). Zeus favored Athena because of her wisdom. Of course, she was created in his divine skull and in the image of perfection. Other myths state that Athena was born outside of Olympus and was raised by the sea god Triton. In this myth, Athena killed Pallas, her mother, accidentally. Apparently, they practiced the arts of war together and one day they had a falling out. As Pallas was about to strike Athena, Zeus intervened. Pallas was stunned by a blow from Zeus, but Athena took advantage and killed her. Upset over what happened, Athena took her mother’s name and was called Pallas Athena (“Athena,” Greek and Roman Mythology, par. 9). • Add 3rd subtopic • Add concluding sentence
Body Paragraphs • Topic sentence (main topic) • Three subtopics (elaborated) • Concluding sentence • Approx. 11 sentences
Avoid these errors: • Avoid jumping from topic to topic • Avoid contractions (Don’t, Won’t, Didn’t) • Avoid using “you” and “I” • Avoid using “that” to reflect on people The Titans were gods who began the feud for power. • Avoid shifting verb tense – use PAST Ares was the cruelest god of all.
Conclusion ** Write 5-7 Sentences to conclude your paper. • Support your THESIS… • What conclusion can YOU draw about your topic? • What should the reader learn from your paper? KEEP IT INTERESTING • Write as the expert on your topic! • Use statistics, quotes, or stories to support your thesis. • Why is your topic important? • Answer “So What?” for the reader