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The Changing Earth A Science Lesson for 5 th Grade. Earth’s Layers. The three layers of Earth are the crust , the mantle , and the core . (see diagram to the right)

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The Changing Earth A Science Lesson for 5 th Grade

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the changing earth a science lesson for 5 th grade
The Changing EarthA Science Lesson for 5th Grade

earth s layers
Earth’s Layers
  • The three layers of Earth are the crust, the mantle, and the core. (see diagram to the right)

See the cutaway view and learn more about the Earth's layers.

  • Crust: the thin, outer layer of Earth
  • Mantle: A thick layer of rock between the crust and the core of Earth
  • Core: the innermost layer of Earth, which consists of a molten outer part and a solid inner part.
  • Want to learn more? Click here!

Text B19

the theory of plate tectonics
  • Plate Tectonics is the theory of continents drifting from place to place breaking apart, colliding, and grinding against each other
  • See Pangaea split into the seven continents
  • Alfred Wegener discovered fossil remains on separate continents that proved the continents were once one giant landmass called PANGAEA
  • Click on the map for a closer view of the Earth's plates.

the theory of plate tectonics continued
Now you try it...see the plates move.THE THEORY OF PLATE TECTONICS (CONTINUED)

tectonic plate movement
  • Plate boundaries are places where plates interact and many earthquakes and volcanoes occur. The three main boundaries are:

1. Convergent boundaries - where plates move together

2. Divergent boundaries - where plates move away from one another

3. Transform-fault boundaries - where plates move past one another

  • Mountains form as the result of four basic processes:

1. Folding – when masses of rock are squeezed from opposite sides (two plates collide).

2. Faulting – when blocks of rock move up or down along a fault.

3. Doming – when the surface is lifted up by magma.

4. Volcanic Activity

  • View a globe showing where earthquakes have occurred over a five year period.
  • Do you have questions about earthquakes? Find the answers here!
  • See these animated faults in motion!

earthquakes cont
  • The instrument used to record the intensity, duration, and nature of earthquake wakes is a seismograph.
  • The Richter scale is a scale of numbers by which the magnitude of earthquakes is measured.

  • A volcano is any opening in Earth’s crust through which hot gases, rocks, and melted material erupt.
  • The melted material that erupts is called magma.
  • Want to learn more about volcanoes? Click here!

volcanoes cont
  • A volcano erupts in certain steps:

1. High temperatures and pressures deep within Earth cause rock to melt.

2. Magma makes its way toward the Earth’s surface melting surrounding material to form a central pipe.

3. Hot melted material moves through the volcanic vent.

4. Magma turns to lava.

  • Watch this animation of a volcanic eruption!