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  2. OBJECTIVES • Come away with good ideas • Evaluate what you are currently putting into your body • Not bore you with high level science – but still provide factual information regarding nutrition and how it relates to athletic performance • Hit a few different areas besides nutrition (athletic success is a puzzle with many parts) • Answer any questions you might have

  3. What InfluencesAthletic Ability? Genetics Optimal Training Good Nutrition No “secret” ingredient!

  4. Performance Nutrition Means… Fueling to boost activity performance on a daily basis Fueling to decrease the risk of injuries, recover fully after workouts and stay healthy Fueling with foods that taste good, foods you enjoy, foods that can be prepared easily, and foods you feel confident eating

  5. Consequences of Poor Nutrition Weight loss Strength loss Lethargy Chronic Fatigue Soreness, joint pain Micronutrient Deficit Respiratory Infections Diminished Performance “Overtraining Syndrome”

  6. Physical Activity Factor Varies Widely Examples Female Olympic Gymnasts 1900 kcal/day Tour de France Cyclists 7,000+ kcal/day College Football Players (in wt gain mode) 7,500-8,500 kcal/day

  7. Marvin Austin Jordan Hasay 6’3”, 312 pounds 5’1”, 98 pounds 21 years old 19 years old 4.69 40 yd dash 4:42.21 mile

  8. Energy Needs Basic Calorie Requirement 15-30 kcal/lbs

  9. Energy Needs Calories/lbs 120lbs 160lbs 240lbs LOW - sedentary 1560- 1800 2080-2400 3120-3600 ACTVE (30-60min) 1920-2160 2560-1880 3840-4320 MODERATE (1-1.5hr) 2280-2520 3040-3360 4560-5040 HIGH (1.5-2hr) 2640-2880 3520-3840 5280-5760 VERY HIGH (2-3hr) 3000-3600 4000-4800 6000-7200

  10. DAILY DIET 2 MOST IMPORTANT MEALS 1.) BREAKFAST • Make the time to eat breakfast (pop‐tarts don’t count…) • Quality carbohydrates for sustained energy (oatmeal) • If you skip this meal it will slow down metabolism (body goes into starvation mode)

  11. DAILY DIET 2 MOST IMPORTANT MEALS 2.) POST WORKOUT • within 30 minutes after workout • Liquid form is best • Look for 4:1 Carbohydrate to Protein ratio • chocolate milk is cheapest form

  12. HOW MANY MEALS A DAY? 4‐6 Approximately 2‐3 hours between meals • 55-65% carbohydrates • 15-20% protein • 20-25% fat

  13. Nutrients: the body’s fuel • Carbohydrates: primary fuel source • Protein: used for repair & maintenance • Fat: secondary fuel source • Water: most essential nutrient • Vitamins: colorful foods first • Minerals: supplements second • Fiber: 20-35 grams per day

  14. Digestion Time of Nutrients 4 hours 2 hours 1 hour

  15. The Importance of Carbohydrates (CHO) • Primary source of energy when you are exercising hard • One should get at least 55-60% of calories from CHO • The body stores CHO as glycogen in muscles and the liver • Running out of glycogen = “Hitting the Wall”

  16. Importance of CHO cont. • Avg. 150 lbs man stores 1,800 Kcals of glycogen and 60-100,000 Kcals as fat • Cannot use fat once you run out of CHO • Trained muscles store 20-50% more glycogen than untrained muscles

  17. Sample Athlete Male soccer player Training 2-3 hours/day 165 lbs = 75kg 9gm CHO/kg = 675 gm CHO

  18. What does 675gm of CHO mean to an athlete? 2 large bagels 70g 2 cups cereal 90g 2 slices bread 30g 2 cups milk 25g 1 cup fruit yogurt 45g 2 cups pasta/sauce 100g 1 cup beans 45g 2 pc fruit 50g 1 cup fruit juice 30g 2 starchy veggies 60g 4 cups Sport Drink 60g 20oz Soda 70g 675g

  19. Protein (PRO) • Needed for building and repairing muscles, red blood cells, hair and other tissues • Synthesizes hormones • Used for energy when CHO is not available or in exhausting exercise • 15-20% of calories should come from PRO • Excess protein is not stored as extra muscle, it is stored as extra FAT! • Your body can only digest so much per feeding

  20. GOOD FOOD CHOICES CARBOHYDRATES Brown rice Sweet potatoes potatoes Oatmeal Pasta fruit PROTEIN Baked Meat Lentils Chicken Fish Dairy products

  21. What is the Glycemic Index? Not all carbohydrate foods are created equal, in fact they behave quite differently in our bodies. The glycemic index or GI describes this difference by ranking carbohydrates according to their effect on our blood glucose levels. Choosing low GI carbs - the ones that produce only small fluctuations in our blood glucose and insulin levels - is the secret to long-term health reducing your risk of heart disease and diabetes and is the key to sustainable weight loss.

  22. # of Calories per Gram of Nutrient Carbohydrate 4 kcal Protien 4 kcal Fat 9 kcal Alcohol 7 kcal Remeber a calorie is a calorie

  23. Hydration

  24. Components of Muscle 20% Protein 75% Water 5% other

  25. Fluids & Hydration Males - 60% body wt. Females - 50% body wt. Cardiovascular function Thermoregulation Injury prevention Performance Recovery Sweat losses during 2 hours of exercise can = 2 liters or more

  26. Physiological Effects of Dehydration sweat rate blood volume & heart rate core body heat cardiovascular function -less O2 and nutrient-rich blood to muscles -more reliance on anaerobic system Slower removal of wastes cramping, fatigue

  27. Impaired Performance! Muscle strength Speed Stamina Energy Cognitive Process Risk of Injury 95% of muscle cramps are due to dehydration!

  28. When Should You Drink? WHEN TO DRINK AMOUNT OF FLUID 2 hr before exercise 2-3+ cups 15 minutes before 1-2+ cups Every 15 minutes DURING 1-1.5 cups After Activity 2-3 cups for every lbs lost

  29. What you already know… Don’t rely on thirst Already 1-2% dehydrated Drink before, during & after 2 hrs before 14-24 oz 20-36 oz/hr or 5-12 oz every 15 mins. drink ~150% or 24oz / lbs lost Water is fine for <1 hr; sport drinks > 1 hr 4-8% carb, 0.5-0.7 g Na+/L pop, fruit juices or fruit drinks >10% may  emptying

  30. Dehydration Planned rehydration is necessary  typically only 1/3 to 2/3 of the volume lost is replaced voluntarily Hockey player average loss of 3-5% 1 lbs weight loss = 16 oz. of fluid 160 lbs player loses 5%  8 lbs 8 lbs  requires 128 oz of fluid to equal loss 6  20 oz sport bottles = 128oz [3.8L]

  31. Nutrition MISTAKE Thinking that…. Sports drinks are only needed for exercise lasting more than an hour Not always true if the activity is intense & occurs in hot, humid conditions Sports drinks actually drive thirst Very easy way to improve performance, fight dehydration, and decrease recovery time

  32. Energy Drinks? Different from Sports Drinks Contain caffeine, other stimulants, sugar, herbs and vitamins Safety concerns for athletes! Use nutrition, hydration, and lifestyle changes to improve energy level 300mg caffeine! WHAT ABOUT….

  33. Refueling after Exercise VERY Important for Athletes For those in multiple events in one day For those training daily “Window” for Refueling First 30 minutes after exercise is critical Glycogen repletion occurs faster after exercise Increased blood flow to the muscle Enzymes that produce glycogen are most active

  34. RECOVERY All the hard work in the weight room and in speed/agility training is worthless without recovery Your body does not become stronger and more powerful while working out but while resting RECOVERY’S 4 MAIN COMPONENTS: 1.) Nutrition 2.) Sleep (min 7‐9 hours) 3.) Rest between training sessions 4.) Choices made on weekends

  35. ALCOHOL The associated residual effect of the alcoholic hangover has been shown to reduce athletic performance by 20-30% The Hangover Effect Or Disturbed Recovery Process HORMONES Heavy drinking caused massive suppression of testosterone between 1.5 and 96 hours (4 days later). (Underwood/Balon 2005) You are at practice… but your hormones are not…

  36. 1 X Drunk = 14 DAYS LOST TRAINING EFFECT • American Athletic Institute has studied the impact of alcohol on condition in elite athletes. Impact has shown significant projections in lost physiological condition that correlates to as much as 14 days of lost training effect…for each time drunk… AMERICAN ATHLETIC INSTITUTE 2005 Don't Waste Your Time!

  37. STRENGTH & SPEED TRAINING • No brain no gain • Smarter not always harder • There is no one way that is best to train • Consistency is the key

  38. MULTI‐SPORTS VS “SPECIALISTS” • Take advantage of the opportunity you have and play as many sports as you can a.) exposes you to different movements / skill sets b.) different teammates c.) different coaches d.) keeps you competing and in different environments

  39. MULTI‐SPORTS VS “SPECIALISTS” • Increased risk of injury due to overuse / repeated movements • Increased risk of burnout • In small school setting do what you can to help teams/school • May miss sport they you truly enjoy or are good at (especially if “specialize at young age)

  40. Sports Nutrition Trivia • The percentage of calories that should come from carbohydrates is: a)40% b)60% c)80% The answer is 60%

  41. Sports Nutrition Trivia • A food with a high glycemic index converts to sugar rapidly. When should an athlete consume this type of food? a)Right before the event b)One hour before the event c)After the event The answer is after the event - to replenish the muscle glycogen stores

  42. Sports Nutrition Trivia • The minimum number of cups of water recommended per day is a)4 b)6 c)8 The answer is 8 cups per day Note: one cup = 8 ounces

  43. Sports Nutrition Trivia • Which of the following is a high glycemic index food? a)Kidney beans b)Apple c)Fruit Juice The answer is fruit juice. Crackers, breads, potatoes are also high glycemic index foods.

  44. Sports Nutrition Trivia • The Best fuel for an athlete is a)Protein b)Carbohydrates c)Fats The answer is carbohydrates.

  45. Sports Nutrition Trivia • The body prefers which two fuels for energy during activity? a)Carbohydrates & Fats b)Carbohydrates & Proteins c)Proteins & Fats The answer is Carbohydrates and Fats

  46. Sports Nutrition Trivia • Salt supplements are essential for athletes a)True b)False The answer is False