Venestriano Carranza Key Terms – Latin American Growth • Cash crop economy • General Santa Anna • The Alamo • Benito Juarez • Maximilian • Porfirio Diaz • Pancho Villa • Emiliano Zapata
Factors Preventing Unity • As the countries in Central and South America began to grow, attempts to unify were thwarted for many reasons. • 1. Geography • 2. Economic Ideals • 3. Class Differences • 4. Politics
Geography • The geography of South America played an important role in preventing unification. • The Andes Mountains and the Amazon Rainforest prevented any countries from communicating effectively. • This led to each country developing in a completely different manner.
Economics • Separation led to the development of different economic ideals. • Many countries operated on cash-crop economies → economies in which one or two crops are the sole source of income for a country. • The fact that not all of the South American countries bought into the cash crop economy led to further separation.
Class Differences • Many of the South American countries differed in terms of which classes were dominant. • Creoles dominated many of the political systems within each country, hence they held a majority of the land and refused to redistribute. • Legal systems within many countries reinforced the strength of many of these creoles. • Would lead to revolts within these countries causing instability that prevented unification.
Political Differences • Considering the strength of the creoles, in many cases revolts occurred changing the political structures of these countries. • Caudillos rose to power in some countries due to the discontent with the upper classes and the need for stability. • The fact that some countries were run by dictators and others were not also prevented unification.
Mexico • General Santa Anna → ruled Mexico and presided over the greatest loss of Mexican territory in its history. • Republic of Texas would ask for independence leading to the occupation of the Alamo → a fort in San Antonio, TX. • General Sam Houston would liberate the fort. • General Santa Anna would be deposed for losing large amounts of territory to America.
Benito Juarez - Would be the first Native American elected president of Mexico. - Napoleon III would attempt to exert control over Mexico by installing Maximilian as ruler of Mexico - Maximilian would be removed from power shortly after his arrival. - Juarez would be re-elected and would bring reforms to encourage the separation of church and state.
Porfirio Diaz - Caudillo who came into power in 1877. - Took over the lands of the citizens and either sold it or rented it to others. - Many would be unable to pay debts and live lifestyles similar to those of serfs. - Diaz would be forced into exile in 1911 after election fraud. - He would die in exile in 1915.
Pancho Villa (1877-1923) - Used the peasant class to ascend to power. - Led a large land redistribution program. - Marched on Columbus, New Mexico and was soundly routed and chased back to Mexico. - Would be assassinated in 1923 by leaders who feared his resurgence.
Emiliano Zapata - Native American general in control of an army in Southern Mexico. - Would play a major role in the Mexican Revolution; provided Francisco Madero with military support during his campaign to rule Mexico. - Would be ambushed by generals sent by Venestriano Carranza
Venestriano Carranza - Major figure during the Mexican Revolution. - Became President of Mexico during the mid 1910's. - Would largely fail to provide the reforms he promised, including land redistribution. - Would be killed in an ambush by a former general of his.