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MED 103: Medical Terminology. Lisa H. Young, RN, BSN, MA Ed. Elements of a Medical Terms. Roots the constant, unchanging foundation of a medical term usually of Greek or Latin origin nearly all medical terms have one or more roots. Elements of a Medical Terms. Combining vowel

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med 103 medical terminology

MED 103: Medical Terminology

Lisa H. Young, RN, BSN, MA Ed.

elements of a medical terms
Elements of a Medical Terms
  • Roots
      • the constant, unchanging foundation of a medical term
      • usually of Greek or Latin origin
      • nearly all medical terms have one or more roots
elements of a medical terms1
Elements of a Medical Terms
  • Combining vowel
    • has no meaning of its own
    • joins a rootto another root
    • joins a root to a suffix
    • makes a word easier to pronounce
    • “o” is the most common combining vowel, followed by “a”
elements of a medical term
Elements of a Medical Term
  • Combining form
    • combines a rootand a combining vowel
    • can be attached to another root or combining form
    • can precede asuffix

Example: enter/o

elements of a medical term1
Elements of a Medical Term
  • Identify the elements of the following word:


gynec/ -o- -logist



greek latin and old english words
Greek, Latin, and Old English Words
  • Some medical terms do not break down (deconstruct) into word elements


    • Greek: toxin meaning poison
    • Latin: medical meaning toheal
    • Old English: record meaning to remember
terms that are alike
Terms That Are Alike
  • Many words in the medical language are very similar.


  • ilium and ileum
  • malleus and malleolus
chapter 1 summary
Chapter 1 Summary
  • Elements
    • prefix, root, combining vowel, combining form, and suffix
  • Greek, Latin, and Old English Words
    • Some do not break down
  • Terms That Are Alike
    • Look alike/sound alike
  • Added to the end of a root/combining form
  • Changes the meaning of medical terms
  • Use of combining vowel

hemat -oma= root + suffix

hemat/o -logist = root + combining

vowel + suffix

classification of suffixes
Classification of Suffixes
  • Diagnostic
    • Diagnosis, procedure, or test
  • Surgical
    • Describes surgical procedures
  • Pathological
    • Describes a sign/symptom of a disease
classification of suffixes1
Classification of Suffixes
  • Adjectives
    • 28 suffixes mean pertaining to
  • Nouns
    • do not fall under any classifications
    • maintain the root or combining form as a noun
diagnostic suffixes
Diagnostic Suffixes
  • Identify the suffixes of the following words:


hemat/ -oma



hemat/ -uria


surgical suffixes
Surgical Suffixes
  • Identify the suffixes of the following word:


append/ -ectomy



lith/o -tripsy

combining suffix


pathological suffixes
Pathological Suffixes
  • Identify the suffixes of the following words:


cyst/ -itis



cyan/ -osis


adjective suffixes
Adjective Suffixes

Suffixes meaning pertaining to:

-ac cardiac pertaining to the heart

-arypulmonarypertaining to the lungs

-iorposteriorpertaining to the back of the body

noun suffixes
Noun Suffixes
  • Identify the suffixes of the following words:


arteri/ -ole



ven/ -ule


  • Added to the beginning of a medical term
  • Change the meaning of medical terms
  • No use of combining vowel

peri-cardium = prefix + root

epi-cardium = prefix + root

position prefixes
Position Prefixes
  • Identify the prefixes of the following words:


epi- dermis

prefix root


hypo dermis

prefix root

number and measurement prefixes
Number and Measurement Prefixes
  • Identify the prefixes of the following word:


multi- para

prefix root


primi- para

prefix root

direction prefixes
Direction Prefixes
  • Identify the prefixes of the following word:


anti- vert

prefix root


syn- apse

prefix root

element review
Element Review
  • Identify the prefixes and suffixes of the following word:


hypo- / gastr / -ic


chapter 2 summary
Chapter 2 Summary
  • Suffixes and Prefixes
    • Change the meaning of medical terms
  • Suffix
    • Added to the end of a root/combining form
    • Use of combining vowel
  • Prefix
    • Added to the beginning of a medical term
decoding terms
Decoding Terms
  • CARD Method
    • Check for the word parts in a term
    • Assign meanings to the word parts
    • Reverse the meaning of the suffix to the front of

the definition

    • Define the term
word analysis definition pronounciation
Word Analysis, Definition & Pronounciation
  • Analyze the following term:


1. suffix — itis meaning inflammation

2. prefix endo— meaning inside

3. root cardmeaning heart

4. put the terms together—inflammation

of the inside of the heart

building terms
Building Terms
  • Spelling Rules
    • If the suffix starts with a vowel, a combining vowel is NOT needed to join the parts

arthr/o itis = arthritis

    • If the suffix starts with a consonant, a combining vowel IS needed to join the two word parts

arthr/o + plasty = arthroplasty

building terms1
Building Terms
  • If a combining form ends with the same vowel that begins a suffix, one of the vowels is dropped

Endo- + cardi/o + itis = Endocarditis

  • If two or more combining forms are used in a term, the combining form is retained

Gastr/o + enter/0 + itis = Gastroenteritis

building terms2
Building Terms
  • When two or more combining forms are used to make a medical term, special notice must be paid to the order in which the combining forms are joined

Esophag/0 + gastr/o + duoden/o + scopy =


(joining the CF reflects the direction in which the scope travels through the body)

  • Singular / Plural Rules
    • Ends in –a add –ae vertebraae
    • Ends in -is add –esarthrosises
    • Ends in –ix or –ex add –ices appendixices
    • Ends in –itis add –itidesarthritisitides
    • Ends in –nx add –ngesphalanxnges
    • Ends in –um add an –a endocardiumia
    • Ends in –us add an –I digitusi
    • Ends in –y add –iesthearpyies
chapter 3 summary
Chapter 3 Summary
  • Word Analysis and Definition
    • break it down into its component elements
  • Plurals and Pronunciations
    • memorize the plurals of medical terms
    • correct pronunciation is vital
  • Precision in Communication

composition of the body
Composition of the Body
  • The body is composed of:

- organs

- tissues

- cells

- organelles

- molecules

    • atoms
structure and functions of cells
Structure and Functions of Cells
  • Basic Functions of Life

- manufacture

- production


- replication


  • Primary Tissue Groups

- connective

- epithelial

- muscle

- nervous

organs organ systems
Organs & Organ Systems
  • Integumentary
    • Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glandis
  • Skeletal
    • Bones, ligaments, cartilages, tendons
  • Muscular
    • Muscles

organs and organ systems
Organs and Organ Systems
  • Nervous
    • Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organ
  • Endocrine
    • Glands that secrete hormones: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal, thymus
  • Cardiovascular
    • Heart, blood vessels
organs and organ systems1
Organs and Organ Systems
  • Lymphatic
    • Lymph vessels and nodes, thymus spleen
  • Digestive
    • Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines
  • Respiratory
    • Control intake and output of air, exchange gases between air and blood
organs and organ systems2
Organs and Organ Systems
  • Urinary
    • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
  • Reproductive
    • Male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, blubourethral glands, urethra, penis
    • Female: ovaries, uterine (fallopian) tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva
prefixes for body organization
Prefixes for Body Organization

ana- up, apart, away

cata- down

en- in

endo- within

epi- above, upon

meta- beyond, change

para- neat, beside, abnormal

suffixes for body organizations
Suffixes for Body Organizations

ai, -ouspertaining to

-ia, -ism condition, state of

-on structure


-some body

-stasis controlling, stopping

-um structure, thing, membrane

-us structure

anatomical positions planes and directions
Anatomical Positions, Planes, and Directions

anatomical planes
Anatomical Planes

positional directional terms
Positional & Directional Terms
  • Anteroposterior (AP) & Posteroanterior (PA)
  • Anterior & ventral to the front/belly side
  • Posterior & dorsal back of body/back
  • Superior & Cephaladupward/toward head
  • Inferior & Caudaddownward/toward tail
  • Medial pertaining to the middle
  • Lateral pertaining to the side
  • Ipsilateral pertaining to same side
position directional terms
Position & Directional Terms
  • Contralateral pertaining to the opposite side
  • Unilateral pertaining to one side
  • Bilateral pertaining to two sides
  • Superficial on the surface of the body
  • Deep away from the surface of the body
  • Proximal near the origin
  • Distal far from the origin
  • Dextradtoward the right
position directional terms1
Position & Directional Terms
  • Sinistradtoward the left
  • Afferent carrying toward a structure
  • Efferent carrying away from structure
  • Supine lying on back
  • Prone lying on stomach
abdominal regions and quadrants
Abdominal Regions and Quadrants

chapter 4 summary
Chapter 4 Summary
  • Organization of the Body
    • All the elements interact with each other
  • Anatomical Position, Planes, and Directions
    • Describe the location of anatomical structures
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Alimentary Canal

Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine

  • Accessory Organs

Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas

functions of the digestive system
Functions of the Digestive System

prefixes of the digestive system
Prefixes of the Digestive System
  • Prefixes for the Digestive System
    • Endo- within
    • Exo- outside
    • Hypo- below
    • Par- near
    • Peri- surrounding
    • Retro- behind
    • Sub- under
suffixes of the digestive system
Suffixes of the Digestive System
  • Suffixes for the Digestive System
    • -al, - ar, -ary, -eal, -id, -ine, -ous, -icpertaining to
    • -aseenzyme
    • -crineto secrete
    • -kininmovement substance
    • -stalsiscontraction
digestive system1
Digestive System
  • Define the following root elements:

- bari

- digest

- laparo

- lymph

digestive system root elements
Digestive System Root Elements
  • Identify and define the root elements of the following terms:

- amylase

- deglutition

- elimination

- peristalsis

digestive systems root elements
Digestive Systems Root Elements
  • Define the following root elements:

- cusp

- lingu

- mandibul

- saliv

digestive system root elements1
Digestive System Root Elements
  • Define the following root elements:

- chol/e

- emuls

- gall

- hepat

digestive system root elements2
Digestive System Root Elements
  • Define the following root elements:

- amin

- hydr

- carb

- lact

digestive system prefixes
Digestive System Prefixes
  • Define the following prefixes:





digestive system suffixes
Digestive System Suffixes
  • Define the following suffixes:

- itis

- ectomy

- osis

- dynia

- ist

digestive system2
Digestive System
  • Define the meaning of the following suffixes:

- um

- rrhoid

- ion

- ative

digestive system3
Digestive System
  • Define the following suffixes:

- um

- in

- ion

- gen

- us

urinary system
Urinary System
  • Anatomy and Physiology
    • Kidneys (nephron)
    • Ureters
    • Bladder
    • Urethra
    • Urinary meatus
    • Trigone
urinary system1
Urinary System
  • Functions of the Kidneys
    • filter blood to eliminate wastes
    • regulate blood volume
    • maintain homeostasis
    • secrete renin
    • secrete erythropoietin
    • synthesize vitamin D

urinary system2
Urinary System





urinary system3
Urinary System
  • Prefixes for the anatomy of the urinary system
    • Extra- outside
    • En- in
    • Par- beside, near
    • Retro- backward
urinary system4
Urinary System
  • Suffixes for the anatomy of the urinary system
    • -al, -ar, -ic pertaining to
    • -ation, -ion process of
urinary system5
Urinary System
  • ectomyexcision, resection
  • -lithotomy extirpation
  • -lysis release
  • -pexyrepair, reposition
  • -scopyinspection
  • -stomybypass, drainage
  • -tomydrainage, division
  • -tripsyfragmentation
male reproductive system
Male Reproductive System
  • Primary Sex Organs
  • Secondary Sex Organs
  • Accessory Glands

male reproductive system1
Male Reproductive System
  • Testes
    • Location
    • Structure
  • Spermatic Cord
    • Location
    • Structure
  • Spermatogenesis
spermatic ducts accessory glands
Spermatic Ducts & Accessory Glands
  • Spermatic Ducts
    • Epididymis
    • Vas deferens
    • Ejaculatory ducts
  • Accessory Glands
    • Prostate
    • Seminal vesicle
    • Bulbourethral glands
male reproductive system2
Male Reproductive System
  • Penis
    • erection
    • ejaculation
male reproductive system3
Male Reproductive System
  • Prefixes for the anatomy of the male reproductive system
    • en- in
    • par- near, beside
  • Suffixes for the anatomy of the male reproductive system
    • -al, -ous, -ar, -ile, -atic, -icpertaining to
    • -ferouspertaining to carrying
    • -genesis production
    • -one substance that forms
male reproductive system4
Male Reproductive System
  • cisionresection
  • -ectomyexcision, resection
  • -ligation occlusion
  • -pexyrepair, reposition
  • -plastyrepair, supplement
  • -stomyrepair
  • -tomydrainage
female reproductive system
Female Reproductive System
  • Perineum
  • Vulva
    • structures of the vulva
female reproductive system2
Female Reproductive System


Fallopian Tubes


female reproductive system3
Female Reproductive System
  • Suffixes for the anatomy of the female reproductive system
    • -archebeginning
    • -ationprocess of
    • -pause stop, cease
    • -salpinxfallopian tube
    • -ectomyexcision, resection
    • -pexyrepair, reposition
    • -plastyrepair, supplement, alteration,replacement
    • -scopyinspection
    • -tomydrainage, division
    • -lysis release
    • -ligation occlusion
  • Embryo
  • Placenta
  • Fetus
  • Suffixes for the A & P of pregnancy
    • -blast embryonic, immature
    • -cyst sac
    • -gravida, -cyesis pregnancy
    • -para, -tocia delivery
  • Stage One: dilation and effacement
  • Stage Two: expulsion of the fetus
  • Stage Three: expulsion of the placenta

Anatomy of breast

Mammary gland

nervous system
Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System

  • Sensory Input
  • Motor Output
  • Evaluation and Integration
  • Homeostasis
  • Mental Activity


  • Brain and spinal cord


  • Nerves all over the body

the brain
The Brain
  • Divisions of the Brain
  • Cerebrum
  • Cerebellum
  • Brain stem
the cerebrum
The Cerebrum
  • Four Cerebral Lobes
  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe
  • Temporal lobe
  • Occipital lobe
functions of the brain
Functions of the Brain
  • Functional Regions of the Brain
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • basal nuclei
    • limbic system
    • brainstem
    • cerebellum
spinal cord
Spinal Cord
  • Four Regions:
    • cervical
    • thoracic
    • lumbar
    • sacral
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System
  • Functions of the Cardiovascular System
    • Pulmonary circulation
    • Systemic circulation
    • Arteries (great, upper and lower)
    • Veins (upper & lower)

cardiovascular system1
Cardiovascular System

Cardiac Cycle

- electrical properties of the heart

circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Functions of the Peripheral Circulation

- carry blood

- transport

- maintain homeostasis

- regulate blood pressure

circulatory system1
Circulatory System
  • Suffixes

-ar, -ary, -ic, -al, -id, -eal pertaining to

-cyte cell

-ia condition

-ion process of

-um structure


Components of Blood

Formed Elements

- RBCs

- hematocrit

- WBCs

- platelets

- plasma

- serum

  • Functions of Blood

- maintain homeostasis

- maintain body temperature

- transport nutrients, vitamins, and


- transport waste products

- transport hormones

- transport gases

- protect against foreign substances

- form clots

- regulate pH and osmosis


Common Prefixes

a- without

anti- against

inter- between

mono- one

poly- many

pro- before



cyte cell -phil attraction

-exia condition -poiesis formation

-gen producing -poietin forming

-globin protein substance substance

-in substance - siderin iron

-kine movement substance

-leukin white substance - stasis controlling,

-lysis breaking down stopping

-osis abnormal condition -thrombin clotting


immune lymphatic systems
Immune & Lymphatic Systems


Physical Mechanisms

Cellular Mechanisms

Humoral Defense Mechanisms

lymphatic system
Lymphatic System


Cells, Tissues, Organs

Lymph Nodes


lymphatic system1
Lymphatic System
  • Functions
    • absorption
    • removal
lymphatic system2
Lymphatic System

T lymphocytes

B lymphocytes

Null Cells


lymphatic organs
Lymphatic Organs




Thymus Gland

immune system
Immune System
  • Humoral Immunity
    • specificity
    • memory
    • discrimination
  • Immunity
    • Cellular
    • Humoral
    • Natural Active Immunity
    • Natural Passive Immunity
    • Artificial Active Immunity
    • Artificial Passive Immunity
respiratory system
Respiratory System

Structures of the Respiratory System

- nose

- pharynx

- larynx

- trachea

- bronchi and bronchioles

- alveoli

Functions of the Respiratory System

- exchange of gases

- regulation of blood pH

- protection

- voice production

- olfaction

respiratory system1
Respiratory System
  • Prefixes

ex- out

in- in

inter- between

oxy- oxygen

para- near

re- again


-centesis drainage

-ectomy excision, resection

-lysis release

-plasty alteration, reposition, repair,

replacement, supplement

-rrhaphy repair

-tomy drainage

  • Classes of Joints

- fibrous

- cartilaginous

- synovial

  • Functions and Structure of Skeletal Muscle

- functions