Medieval Europe Elizabeth Nguyen
7.6.1 • 1. Study the geography of the Europe and the Eurasian land mass, including its location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate and their relationship to ways of life in Medieval Europe.
7.6.2 • 2. Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire.
Spread of Christianity • AD 400s • Gregory I, Gregory the Great • AD 590 to 604 • Monks to become missionaries • Southern Britain • Northern Britain
Monasteries • School • Food and rest • Hospital care • Taught carpentry and weaving • Developed better methods for farming • Preserve knowledge • Abbot: leader of a monastery
7.6.4 • 4. Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs
e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor Henry IV • Charlemagne • AD 800, declared the new Roman emperor • 1073, Gregory VII • Henry IV • 1122, Concordat of Worms
7.6.3 • 3. Understand the development of feudalism, its role in the medieval European economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided the foundation of political order.
Feudalism • Nobles governed and protected in return for services such as fighting in a noble’s army or farming the land • Based on ties of loyalty and duty • Lords and vassals • Fief- grant
Farming • Heavy wheel plow with iron blade • Horse collar • Water mills/ wind mills • Rotated crops
Trade • Increase in trading • Trading companies and banks • Guilds • New middle class
7.6.5 • 5. Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament, development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England).
England, “Angleland” • King Alfred, ruled from AD 871 to 899 • William the Conqueror • Henry II, ruled from 1154 to 1189 • King John • 1215, the Magna Carta • Habeas corpus • 1200s, King Edward- parliament
7.6.6 • 6. Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world.
Crusades • 1071, attack of Byzantine Empire • 1095, Pope Urban II • First crusade, captured Jerusalem • Second crusade, Muslims captured Edessa • Third crusade, Saladin captures Jerusalem