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Chapter 14. Simulation and Other Applications. Chapter Goals. Define simulation Give examples of complex systems Distinguish between continuous and discrete event simulation Explain how object-oriented design principles can be used in building models. Chapter Goals.

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chapter 14

Chapter 14

Simulation and Other Applications

chapter goals
Chapter Goals
  • Define simulation
  • Give examples of complex systems
  • Distinguish between continuous and discrete event simulation
  • Explain how object-oriented design principles can be used in building models
chapter goals1
Chapter Goals
  • Name and discuss the four parts of a queuing system
  • Explain the complexity of weather and seismic models
  • Explain the concept of embedded systems and give examples from your own home
  • Distinguish between two-dimensional and three-dimensional CAD systems
what is simulation
What Is Simulation?
  • Simulation A model of a complex system and the experimental manipulation of the model to observe the results

Systems that are best suited to being simulated are dynamic, interactive, and complicated

  • Model An abstraction of a real system

It is a representation of the objects within the system and the rules that govern the interactions of the objects

constructing models
Constructing Models
  • Continuous simulation
    • Treats time as continuous and expresses changes in terms of a set of differential equations that reflect the relationships among the set of characteristics
    • Meteorological models falls into this category
constructing models1
Constructing Models
  • Discrete event simulation
    • Made up of entities, attributes, and events
    • Entity The representation of some object in the real system that must be explicitly defined
    • Attribute Some characteristic of a particular entity
    • Event An interaction between entities
queuing systems
Queuing Systems
  • Queuing system A discrete-event model that uses random numbers to represent the arrival and duration of events
    • The system is made up of servers and queues of objects to be served
    • The objective is to utilize the servers as fully as possible while keeping the wait time within a reasonable limit
queuing systems1
Queuing Systems
  • To construct a queuing model, we must know the following four things
    • The number of events and how they affect the system in order to determine the rules of entity interaction
    • The number of servers
    • The distribution of arrival times in order to determine if an entity enters the system
    • The expected service time in order to determine the duration of an event
meteorological models
Meteorological Models
  • Meteorological models are based on the time-dependent partial differential equations of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics
  • Initial values for the variables are entered from observation, and the equations are solved to define the values of the variables at some later time
meteorological models1
Meteorological Models
  • Computer models are designed to aid the weathercaster, not replace him or her
    • The outputs from the computer models are predictions of the values of variables in the future
    • It is up to the weathercaster to determine what the values mean
hurricane tracking
Hurricane Tracking
  • The modules for hurricane tracking are called relocatable models, because they are applied to a moving target
  • The Geophysical and Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) developed the most recent hurricane model in order to improve the prediction of where a hurricane would make landfall
hurricane tracking1
Hurricane Tracking

Figure 14.2 Improvements in hurricane models

graphics and computer aided design cad
Graphics and Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
  • Graphics is the language of communications for engineers, designers, and architects
  • Computer-aided design (CAD) A system that uses computers with advanced graphics hardware and software to create precision drawings or technical illustrations
graphics and computer aided design cad1
Graphics and Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
  • CAD systems can be broadly classified as two-dimensional (2-D) CAD and three-dimensional (3-D) CAD
  • There are three methods of modeling in three dimensions
    • Wireframe modeling
    • Surface modeling
    • Solid modeling
graphics and computer aided design cad2
Graphics and Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Figure 14.3 Geometric modeling techniques

embedded systems
Embedded Systems
  • Embedded systems are computers that are dedicated to perform a narrow range of functions as part of a larger system
    • Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor chip with the programs stored in ROM
    • Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface—watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars—utilize embedded systems
    • In fact, the term embedded system is nebulous because it encompasses about everything except desktop PCs