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Regulatory Systems

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  1. Regulatory Systems • Hormones = molecules synthesized and secreted into body fluids • Endocrine gland – ductless, secretes hormones into blood stream • Exocrine gland – secretes chemicals into ducts • What are the 2 communicatory and regulatory systems found in animals? • Nervous system • Endocrine system • Feedback is common to both systems

  2. Local Regulation • Interleukins and histamines of immune system • Nitric oxide • Growth factors • Prostaglandins: • Intensify pain • Induce labor • Aspirin reduces effect of prostaglandins

  3. Different Types of Hormones • Steroid hormones, fat soluble • Peptide hormones

  4. Vertebrate Endocrine System

  5. Hypothalamus and Pituitary • Hypothalamus – 2 sets of hormones • Tropic hormones – hormones that target other endocrine glands • Which pituitary hormones are tropic? • TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH

  6. Thyroid • 2 thyroid hormones both contain iodine • Feedback in the thyroid gland regulates levels of T3 and T4 • Controls blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tone, digestion and reproduction. • Hyperthyroidism causes high body temps, sweating and high blood pressure • Hypothyroidism causes cretinism and weight gain • Goiter is an enlarged thyroid caused by iodine deficient diet • Calcium homeostasis includes parathyroid

  7. Pancreas • Is the pancreas an endocrine or exocrine gland? • Exocrine gland that produces digestive enzymes • Endocrine gland that includes islets of Langerhans Alpha cells secrete glucagon Beta cells secrete insulin • Opposing hormones that regulate blood glucose levels

  8. Diabetes • What is the difference between type I and type II diabetes? • Type I = juvenile diabetes, autoimmune disorder, can no longer make insulin • Type II = late onset due to reduced responsiveness of receptor cells

  9. Adrenal Glands • What are the 2 glands associated with the adrenal glands? • Adrenal cortex • Adrenal medulla • The adrenal glands respond to stress

  10. Pineal Gland • Near the center of the brain • Secretes melatonin • Controls biorhythms

  11. Which hormones and glands are involved in the following situations? • High blood calcium levels • Contraction of mammary gland cells • Low glucose levels • Drinking alcoholic beverages • Buying salt without iodine • Pop quiz in AP Bio (short term stress) • Sick member of your family (long term stress) • High glucose levels • Low calcium levels

  12. What is the role of ADH and Oxytocin?

  13. What are the roles of these hormones?