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Regulatory Systems. Hormones = molecules synthesized and secreted into body fluids Endocrine gland – ductless, secretes hormones into blood stream Exocrine gland – secretes chemicals into ducts What are the 2 communicatory and regulatory systems found in animals? Nervous system

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regulatory systems
Regulatory Systems
  • Hormones = molecules synthesized and secreted into body fluids
  • Endocrine gland – ductless, secretes hormones into blood stream
  • Exocrine gland – secretes chemicals into ducts
  • What are the 2 communicatory and regulatory systems found in animals?
  • Nervous system
  • Endocrine system
  • Feedback is common to both systems
local regulation
Local Regulation
  • Interleukins and histamines of immune system
  • Nitric oxide
  • Growth factors
  • Prostaglandins:
    • Intensify pain
    • Induce labor
    • Aspirin reduces effect of prostaglandins
different types of hormones
Different Types of Hormones
  • Steroid hormones, fat soluble
  • Peptide hormones
hypothalamus and pituitary
Hypothalamus and Pituitary
  • Hypothalamus – 2 sets of hormones
  • Tropic hormones – hormones that target other endocrine glands
  • Which pituitary hormones are tropic?
  • TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
thyroid
Thyroid
  • 2 thyroid hormones both contain iodine
  • Feedback in the thyroid gland regulates levels of T3 and T4
  • Controls blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tone, digestion and reproduction.
  • Hyperthyroidism causes high body temps, sweating and high blood pressure
  • Hypothyroidism causes cretinism and weight gain
  • Goiter is an enlarged thyroid caused by iodine deficient diet
  • Calcium homeostasis includes parathyroid
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Is the pancreas an endocrine or exocrine gland?
  • Exocrine gland that produces digestive enzymes
  • Endocrine gland that includes islets of Langerhans

Alpha cells secrete glucagon

Beta cells secrete insulin

  • Opposing hormones that regulate blood glucose levels
diabetes
Diabetes
  • What is the difference between type I and type II diabetes?
  • Type I = juvenile diabetes, autoimmune disorder, can no longer make insulin
  • Type II = late onset due to reduced responsiveness of receptor cells
adrenal glands
Adrenal Glands
  • What are the 2 glands associated with the adrenal glands?
  • Adrenal cortex
  • Adrenal medulla
  • The adrenal glands respond to stress
pineal gland
Pineal Gland
  • Near the center of the brain
  • Secretes melatonin
  • Controls biorhythms
slide13
Which hormones and glands are involved in the following situations?
  • High blood calcium levels
  • Contraction of mammary gland cells
  • Low glucose levels
  • Drinking alcoholic beverages
  • Buying salt without iodine
  • Pop quiz in AP Bio (short term stress)
  • Sick member of your family (long term stress)
  • High glucose levels
  • Low calcium levels
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