slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Regulatory Requirements for Wireless Systems PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Regulatory Requirements for Wireless Systems

play fullscreen
1 / 126

Regulatory Requirements for Wireless Systems

167 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Regulatory Requirements for Wireless Systems

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. FCC Requirements for Unlicensed DevicesWashington Laboratories, Ltd.Laboratory WorkshopGaithersburg, MD

  2. Regulatory Requirements for Wireless Systems • Greg Snyder • Chief EMC Engineer

  3. Routes to Compliance • US: Federal Communications Commission • Title 47 CFR • Telecommunications Certification Bodies • FCC Identifier & Certification • EU: R&TTE (+EMC+Safety) • Self-Declaration • CE Marking • Notified Body/Conformity Assessment Body (CAB) • Technical Construction File • CE Marking

  4. FCC CFR Title 47 Regulations • Part 2 General Requirements • Part 5 Experimental Radio Service • Part 15 Subpart C, D, and E Unlicensed Low Power Transmitters • Part 20 Common Carrier • Part 21 Domestic Public Service • Part 22 Public Mobile Service • Part 24 Licensed PCS http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr/

  5. FCC CFR 47 Regulations • Part 25 Satellite Communication Services • Part 26 General Wireless services • Part 27 Miscellaneous Wireless Services • Part 68 Telecom Services • Part 73 Education Services • Part 74 Television Broadcast • Part 80 Maritime Service

  6. FCC CFR 47 Regulations • Part 87 Aviation • Part 90 Private Land Mobile • Part 95 Personal Radio Service • Part 97 Amateur Radio • Part 100 Digital Satellite Broadcast (Eliminated and now requirements are in Part 25) • Part 101 Fixed Microwave

  7. FCC Part 15.1: Scope • This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator may be operated without an individual license. It also contains the technical specifications, administrative requirements and other conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices.

  8. FCC Part 15.15: General Technical Requirements • Good Design. Emanations < Limits • No adjustments by user • Operators of Part 15 devices must cease operation if interference is caused to authorized users

  9. Measurement Standards • ANSI C63.4–2003: “Methods of Measurement of Radio-Noise Emissions from Low-Voltage Electrical and Electronic Equipment in the Range of 9 kHz to 40 GHz” • MP-2: Noise Figures of UHF TV Receivers • ANSI C63.17–1998: “Methods of Measurement of the Electromagnetic and Operational Compatibility of Unlicensed Personal Communications Services (UPCS) Devices”

  10. Certification • “Equipment Authorizations” • Requires a detailed list of “Exhibits” • See 2.1033 for complete details • Essentially, two classes • Licensed (e.g. Part 90, VHF/UHF Radios) • Unlicensed: (e.g. Part 15, Much of the wireless development is unlicensed (802.11, WLAN, UWB, Low Power Devices)

  11. Certification Application Items • Cover Letters: • Request for Confidentiality (if desired) • Modifications  • Test Report from Lab • User’s Manual • Schematics  • Block Diagram  • Test Setup Photographs from Lab  • Internal/External Photographs by Lab  • FCC ID Label Artwork:  • FCC Label Position on Device   • Operational Description:   • Attestation Statements (for Transmitters)

  12. FCC ID • FCC ID: AAAnnnnnnnnnnnnnn • AAA: is Grantee Code from FCC. Need to get the Grantee Code from FCC: • nnnnnnnnnnnnnn: is from Manufacturer • Get grantee code from web site • “https://gullfoss.fcc.gov/prod/oet/index.html” • Cost: $50 (one time only) • The FCC ID number must be on all Certified Devices

  13. Obtaining an FCC Grantee Code • Procedures regarding online grantee code assignments and payment information: • Go to: https://gullfoss2.fcc.gov/prod/oet/cf/eas/index.cfm • For first-time filers, go to Miscellaneous on the left side of the page. • Click on GET FRN. Follow Directions. WRITE DOWN FRN! • Go back to: https://gullfoss2.fcc.gov/prod/oet/cf/eas/index.cfm • Go to Filing Options > Grantee Registration. Follow Directions. WRITE DOWN GRANTEE CODE • The client should retain the grantee code assignment page. This page provides the date that the grantee code was assigned. • Payment (one-time $50.00 fee) via online credit card is recommended as the quickest payment procedure. The payer should retain a copy of the acknowlegment of the payment. If for some reason the online payment fails, the payment (via check; money order; wire transfer; or credit card) and Form 159 should be submitted to Mellon Bank AS SOON AS POSSIBLE - within a day or two of the date the code was assigned, and certainly NO LONGER THAN 15 days after the code assignment. It is important to allow enough time for the payment to clear through Mellon Bank before the 30-day time limit.

  14. FCC Part 2 Requirements

  15. Test Report Requirements • Designed to show transmitter is “well-behaved” • 2.1046 – Output Power • 2.1047 – Modulation Requirements • 2.1049 – Occupied Bandwidth • 2.1051 – Antenna Conducted Spurs • 2.1053 – Transmitter Radiated Spurs • 2.1055 – Frequency Stability

  16. FCC Part 15CLow Power Transmitters“Unlicensed Operation”

  17. 15 C Intentional Radiators • General Requirements: • FCC 15.207 • FCC 15.209 • Class B Limits Only

  18. 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements • Intentional Emitters: • f < 10 GHz: to the tenth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 40 GHz, whichever is lower. • 10 GHz < f < 30 GHz: fifth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 100 GHz, whichever is lower. • f >: fifth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 200 GHz, whichever is lower, unless specified otherwise elsewhere in the rules.

  19. 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements • Unintentional Emitters • Highest frequency generated or used in the device or on which the device operates or Upper frequency of tunes (MHz) measurement range (MHz) • Below 1.705.............................30 • 1.705-108.................................1000 • 108-500................................... 2000 • 500-1000..................................5000 • Above 1000..............................5th harmonic or 40 GHz, whichever is lower • 15.33(b)(2) See exceptions for CB radios

  20. 15.203 Antenna Requirements • 15.203 Antenna requirement. - An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. • Unique connector • Permanently affixed • Professional Installation

  21. 15.205 Restricted Bands • Bands are generally US Government, military bands, Biomedical Telemetry • The field strength of emissions appearing within these frequency bands shall not exceed the limits shown in §15.209. • Basis for all radiated “band edge” requirements (i.e. 2483.5MHz). • Caution: Restricted Bands change over time

  22. AC Conducted Limits 15.207 • Unless specified elsewhere, all Intentional Radiators must meet 15.207 limits anywhere outside of their allotted frequency band • CISPR 22 Limits (150 kHz – 30MHz, peak and average) (July 10, 2004) • Limit = 250uV 450kHz to 30 MHz (peak only) • Required if it connects directly or indirectly to AC mains • Conducted emissions not required for battery powered devices

  23. Radiated Emission Limits 15.209General Emissions Limits • Unless specified elsewhere, all Intentional Radiators must meet 15.209 limits anywhere outside of their allotted frequency band • Test set-up per ANSI C63.4-2001 • Limits identical to FCC Class B. Tighter limits apply at all band edges • Specific rules may apply for the device. • Intentional radiators must generally be measured to the 10th Harmonic

  24. Measurement Standards • ANSI C63.4-2001- per Part 15.31 (a) (3) • CISPR 22 (Must use ANSI setup) • FCC Part 15 • Other Resources: • Public Notices, FCC Dockets, Interpretations www.fcc.gov

  25. 15.225: 13.110 – 14.010MHz • RFID devices (new rules in 2003) • Allow the tag to be certified with the interrogator device • Increased frequency range • Limits increased

  26. 15.231 Periodic Operation • 40.66MHz – 40.70MHz • Above 70MHz • Now allows data transmission to be sent with control signal (Late 2003) • Limited to 5 second Tx duration • Periodic transmissions not allowed • Polling/supervision transmissions allowed for security and safety applications (e.g. alarm system) • Limited in duration (2 sec./hour)

  27. 15.231 Periodic Operation • Field strength limits: • QP below 1GHz • Average above 1GHz • Duty cycle correction for pulsed operations • Peak limit above 1GHz also applies • 20dB Bandwidth limited to 0.25% of operating frequency

  28. 15.231 Periodic Operation • Common devices: • Garage door remotes • Car entry systems/keyfobs • Alarm systems • Voice, video and radio controlled toys only permitted under 15.231(e) • Tighter limits • Limited transmission duration

  29. Duty Cycle Correction • Used with pulsed operation to obtain average value of emission • Based on pulse train or worst case 100ms. • 20dB Max duty cycle correction allowed

  30. Duty Cycle Correction • Example: Worst case 100ms

  31. Duty Cycle Correction • Pulse Width:

  32. Duty Cycle Correction • Calculation: • On Time Per 100ms (worst case): • 8.5 x 4.2ms = 35.7ms • Duty cycle calculation: • 35.7ms/100ms = 35.77% on time • 20 * LOG(0.3577) = -8.9dB duty cycle correction.

  33. 15.247 Spread Spectrum • ISM Band • 902 – 928 MHz • 2400 – 2483.5MHz • 5725 – 5850MHz • Direct Sequence and Digital Transmission Systems • Frequency Hopping Systems • 802.11 a/b/g systems

  34. Spread Spectrum Definitions • BER = Bit Error Rate • dBc = decibels below carrier • dBd = decibels above dipole • dBi= decibels above an Isotropic • dBm = decibels above 1 millwatt • EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power • ERP = Effective Radiated Power

  35. Spread Spectrum Requirements • Direct Sequence Systems (DSSS) • Frequency Hopping Systems (FHSS) • Hybrid Systems - Combination of DSS and DTS • Digital Transmission Systems (DTS)

  36. Spread Spectrum • Direct Sequence and DTS use a sequential modulation to spread a narrow signal over a relative broad band. • Frequency hopping - uses an encoded narrow band signal that shifts in a pseudo-randomly-generated frequency shifts.

  37. Spread Spectrum • Hybrid: Combination of both Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence systems • Bluetooth, e.g.

  38. Spread Spectrum • Operate in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical bands on a secondary basis. • ISM are global and not restricted by ITU regions

  39. Spread Spectrum • 902 - 928 MHz • 2400 - 2483.5 MHz • 5725 - 5850 MHz

  40. IEEE 802.11b Specifications • Use Direct Sequence Radio rules • U.S.Frequency of Operation 2412 – 2462 MHz • ETSI Frequency of Operation 2412 - 2472 MHz • Channel Spacing Every 5 MHz • 802.11 Protocol Header Transmitted on Start of Every Initial Transmission

  41. IEEE 802.11 • Frequency Hoppers • U.S. Frequency of Operation 2402 - 2480 • ETSI Frequency of Operation 2402-2480 • 802.11 Hop Patterns • 802.11 Header

  42. Canadian Standards • RSP-100 • RSS-139-1 • RSS-210 • RSS-102

  43. US Standards • CFR 47 FCC Part 15 Subpart B Unintentional Radiators • CFR 47 FCC Part 15 Subpart C Intentional Radiators • CFR 47 FCC Part 15.247 Spread Spectrum

  44. FCC Requirements for Spread Spectrum Devices • Four types of transmitter modulation allowed • Frequency Hopper • Direct Sequence • Digital Transmission Systems • Hybrid

  45. FCC Requirements for Spread Spectrum transmitters • Transmitter Power Output 1 Watt Max • Effective Isotropic Radiated Power 4 Watts Max • Antenna Gain - limited to +6dBi without power reduction from transmitter of 1dB Power for Every 1dB Antenna Exceeds 6dBi • Unique Antenna Jack Required

  46. Additional FCC Requirements • For systems Operating Strictly as a Point to Point system, the Power Reduction Requirement is 1dB for every 3dB the antenna exceeds 6dBi • Device Must Meet OET-65 RF Safety Requirements (1mW/cm2 for 2.4 GHz Devices)

  47. Additional FCC Requirements • Operate on Non-Interference Basis • Out of Band Requirements including being 20dB down in any 100kHz Outside the Band of Operation and meet general emissions limits (15.209) in the Restricted Bands.

  48. Modification Filings • Class II Changes • Addition of second antenna • Addition of second power level • Limited test suites can be used

  49. Spurious Emission Requirements • Conducted Emissions Limits • 450 kHz to 30 MHz 48dBuV • Radiated Emissions Limits (@3m) • 30 to 88 MHz 40 dBuV/m • 88 to 216 MHz 43.5 dBuV/m • 216 to 960 MHz 46 dBuV/m • 960 MHz+ 54 dBuV/m

  50. Frequency Hopping Requirements • If maximum 20dB Bandwidth is 1 MHz (500kHz for 900 MHz) • Minimum of 75 Hopping Frequencies for 2.4 GHz • 50 hopping Frequencies for 900 MHz • Average Occupancy less then 0.4 seconds in a 30 second period • If maximum 20dB Bandwidth is > 1MHz • Minimum of 13 channels over 75 MHz • Average Occupancy less then 0.4 seconds in time to hop all channels • Random Non-Sequential Hop Pattern