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Regulatory considerations for wireless aircraft systems

Regulatory considerations for wireless aircraft systems

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Regulatory considerations for wireless aircraft systems

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  1. Regulatory considerations for wireless aircraft systems April 17, 2007 Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  2. This presentation will give an overview of regulatory considerations inbroadband wireless system design and installation onboard commercialaircraft. Alternative technologies may offer solutions which deliver thepromise of an internet in the sky. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  3. Introduction • Overview to the Wireless Interference Issues • History of PEDs on Commercial Aircraft • Past Regulatory Reviews & Findings • Types of Potential Interference • Theoretical & Practical • Incident Reports & Experience • Industry & Regulatory Activities • Near-Term & Long-Term Outlook Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  4. History of Wireless Interference Issues - Concern Over PEDs on Aircraft Is Not New • 1963 – RTCA SC-88, Report DO-119 - Dealt with FM Radio Receivers Resulted in FAR 91.19 controlled use of PEDs. Recommended prohibiting radios in flight • 1988 – RTCA SC-156, Report DO-199 - Concluded PED EMI Exists but Is Low - Recommended FAA Advisory Circular for PEDs - Recommended FCC change classification for PED RF output Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  5. History of Wireless Interference Issues - Concern Over PEDs on Aircraft Is Not New • 1996 – RTCA-177, Report DO-233 - Improved Aircraft Path Loss Factor Measurements - Changed FAR 91.21 to Prohibit PED Use During Critical Flight Phases • 2003 – RTCA SC-202 - Deals with Wireless RF LANs and Cell Phones (Intentional Tx) Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  6. The U.S. Regulatory Situation • Dual Regulatory Agencies - Cell Phone and Wireless Devices on Aircraft are governed by FCC and FAA Regulations • The FCC and the FAA Are Coordinating their Activities in Examining the Use of Wireless Devices Onboard Aircraft. • The FCC and the FAA Are Seeking Technical Guidance in the Regulatory Process from Various Organizations – Notably NASA and RTCA Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  7. Non-FAA Regulatory Developments in the U.S. FCC Re-Examining Its Ban on Inflight Cell Phone Use April 6, 2007 – the U.S. FCC is seeking public comment on whether to permit the airborne operation of "off the shelf" wireless handsets and other devices under the following conditions: a.) The device operates at its lowest power setting under control of a "pico cell," which is a very small specialized cellular base station installed onboard the aircraft; and b.) The operation does not interfere with on-ground users. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  8. Non-FAA Regulatory Developments (Continued) • Good News for U.S. Passengers Demanding • Voice & Data Connectivity (Parity with European • Passengers) • Opposition by Pilot and Flight Attendant Unions • After FCC Comment Period, FCC Likely to Lift Cell Phone Ban Under the Conditions: • a.) Only onboard pico-cell technology allowed • b.) Subject to FAA and Airline approval • Good News for AirCell, the U.S. ATG License Holder • Voice Services Complement to Broadband Service Offering Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  9. Q: Why Is There A Concern? A: The Potential for Interference In a Growing Variety of PEDs Brought Onboard. Note the Range of Devices for Which Interference Was Reported in a 9/2004 FAA Incident Report Summary Extracted From NASA-ASRS. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  10. Q: What Systems Are Affected? A: Many Different Systems Ranging From Non-Essential to Flight Critical, Including Navigational, This FAA Chart Depicts Interference Reports from 1995 to 2002. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  11. NASA ASRS PED Interference Reports 1995-2002 Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  12. What Causes Interference to Avionics from PEDs and Wireless Devices? • Coupling of PED emissions with avionics antenna • or components acting as an Antenna. • Antennas - Leakage Thru Windows, Doors, Seams • Any Cable (including Seat-to-Seat Cabling) • Power cables • Power Supplies • Poorly Shielded Circuit Board Components Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  13. What Causes Interference to Avionics from PEDs and Wireless Devices (Continued)? • What Are the Factors Affecting Coupling? • Frequency of Emissions • Fundamental Frequencies (including Harmonic Frequencies) • Spurious Frequencies • Power of Emissions • Sensitivity of Avionics Device (Shielding Issue) Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  14. Aircraft Radio Receiver Antenna Portable electronic device RF emissions Radio receiver Front-Door Coupling • Emissions radiated by portable electronic devices can radiate to aircraft antennas through: • Windows • Cargo and passenger door seams • Hatches Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  15. RF emissions from portable electronic device Back-Door Coupling • Emissions radiated by portable electronic devices can couple directly to aircraft wiring and avionics Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  16. NASA Studies on Cell Phones, PEDs & UWB Devices Multiple Studies Performed – Bluetooth, 802.11, GSM, CDMA, GMRS and FRS Radios Cell Phones – Some Small (But Not Zero) Interference Detected. On/Off Triggered Highest Spurious Emissions Laptops & PDAs – Emissions Generally Benign But Some Exceedances of DO160D Category M Emission Limits For TCAS and DME Bands GMRS and FRS Radios – Very Noisy – Exceeded Laptops By As Much As 30dB Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  17. Cabin Wireless LAN (CWLAN) Certification • The FAA Has Issued Several STCs for CWLAN • Systems for: • Gulfstream & Dassault Falcon 2000 • Bombardier Global Express • B777-200/300 & B747-400 • A330 & A340 • B757 • B737 Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  18. Ground Test & Flight Test Methodologies • Conduct EMI Assessment to Determine if EMI Flight Test Is Required. If Required (Likely) • Perform a front-door and back-door transmission test to Validate intentional system transmission levels. • Identify Average and Maximum Number of PEDs in Use on Aircraft and Associated Operational and Failure Mode Power Levels. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  19. Ground Test & Flight Test Methodologies (Continued) • All Frequency Bands Used by the CWLAN System Need to Be Evaluated • Aircraft Location Tests Required from various locations in the cabin where PED usage is expected (galley, passenger aisles, etc.). • Verify CWLAN System and PED equipment meets the current edition of RTCA/DO-160E section 21, Category M, emission levels. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  20. What Should an Airline or System/Component Manufacturer Do to Prevent Wireless Interference? • 5 Step Approach • Ensure That All System Components Pass DO-160E, • Category M • Have Experienced Electrical or Systems DER Review • The Aircraft Installation Plan for Potential EMI Issues • Make Sure Aircraft Wiring Diagram and Electrical • Load Analysis are Up-To-Date (Verify Current AC • Configuration) • Consider Existing Aircraft Antennae Wire Routing • Careful Consideration for Component Installation • Location for Potential EMI Issue with Antennas • or Avionics. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  21. Summary The FAA Recognizes There Is A Small Risk to Sensitive Radio systems from PEDs. Intentional Transmitters May Interfere With Some Aircraft Systems That Are Not Qualified to HIRF Requirements. Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  22. Special Thanks To: Rolfe Goedecke- Airbus Industrie Kiko Brenneisen- FAA DER & DAR, Aero Certification Roger Modeen, FAA DER, Boeing (retired) Kreg Doerr – Aero Certification Rich Salter – Lumexis, WAEA TC Ioan Leuca, Ph.D. – formerly Connexion By Boeing Bill Straus, Ph.D. – NASA/DOT Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential

  23. References “In-Flight Radio Frequency Spectrum Measurements of Commercial Aircraft Cabins,” DOT/FAA/AR-06/41Office of Aviation Research and Development Washington, DC 20591, Bill Straus, Ph.D. and M. Granger Morgan, Ph.D. “Recent Developments in Aircraft Wireless Networks,” Obi Orjih, Washington University, May 9, 2006 “Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference To Aircraft Radios,” Ely, Jay (NASA); Fuller (Eagle Wings Inc.); Shaver, Timothy (United Airlines) “Electromagnetic Interference Assessment of CDMA and GSM Wireless Phones To Aircraft Navigation Radios,” Ely, Jay (NASA), Nguyen, Truong (NASA), Koppen, Sandra (Lockheed Martin), Salud, Theresa (Lockheed Martin) “Guidance on Allowing Transmitting Portable Electronic Devices (T-PEDs) on Aircraft,” RTCA DO-294, December 13, 2006 Aero Certification and Engineering LLC - Proprietary & Confidential