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Autism Mrs. Amy Spencer Elizabeth City State University SPEC EDUC 660 Dr. Paula Viltz, Professor. What is Autism?. “Autism is a developmental disability that affects one’s ability to communicate and interact.”. (Shelton, 2009, p. 136). Social Interaction. Communication. Behavior.

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Autism

Mrs. Amy Spencer

Elizabeth City State University

SPEC EDUC 660

Dr. Paula Viltz, Professor


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What is Autism?

“Autism is a developmental disability that affects one’s ability to

communicate and interact.”

(Shelton, 2009, p. 136)


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  • Communication

  • Behavior

(Willis, 2006)


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(Aspy & Grossman, 2008)


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  • Continuum ranges from severe to high functioning

  • High Functioning Autism is also called Asperger’s Syndrome

(Whelan, 2009)


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What Causes

Autism?


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  • No Known Cure


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New study

(Doreen, 2009)


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Today, one in every one hundred fifty children in the

United States are diagnosed with

Autism.

(O’Hanlon and Thiessen, 2009)


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What are some of the characteristics of Autism?

Abnormal Social Skills

  • Fails to respond to his or her name

  • Has poor eye contact

  • Appears not to hear you at times

  • Resists cuddling and holding

  • Appears unaware of others’ feelings

  • Seems to prefer playing alone – retreats into his or her ‘own world’


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Impaired Language

  • Starts talking later than other children

  • Loses previously acquired ability to say words or sentences

  • Does not make eye contact when making requests

  • Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm – may use a singsong voice or

  • robot-like speech

  • Can’t start a conversation or keep one going

  • May repeat words or phrases verbatim, but doesn’t

  • understand how to use them


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Unusual Behaviors

  • Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand-flapping

  • Develops specific routines or rituals

  • Becomes disturbed at the slightest change in routines or rituals

  • Moves constantly

  • May be fascinated by parts of an object, such as the

  • spinning wheels of a toy car

  • May be unusually sensitive to light, sound and touch and yet oblivious to pain

(Mayo Clinic, 2008 p. 2-3)


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Other disorders with similar traits:

  • OCD – Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

  • Semantic-Pragmatic Disorder

  • ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Schizoid Personality Disorder

(Howley & Mesibov, 2003)


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How can you determine

if a child has autism?


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Classroom Adaptations for inclusion of autistic students

can include but are not limited to:

  • Establishing effective communication tools for the student

  • Creating a predictable schedule for class

  • Teaching appropriate social behaviors using social stories

  • Using peer helpers

  • Collaborating with special education teachers and parents to

  • know what is best for the student

(Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2007)



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References

Aspy, Ruth & Grossman, Barry G. (2008). The Ziggurat Model A Framework for Designing Comprehensive Interventions for Individuals with High- Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Shawnee Mission, Kansas: Autism Asperger Publishing Co.

Dooren, Jennifer Corbett.  (2009, June 9). Autism Study to Follow Pregnant Women. Wall Street Journal  (Eastern Edition),  p. D.2.  Retrieved September 25, 2009, from Wall Street Journal. (Document ID: 1742209141).

Howley, Marie & Mesibov, Gary. (2003). Accessing the Curriculum for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the TEACCH Programme to Help Inclusion. London, England: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

Mastropieri, Margo A. & Scruggs, Thomas E. (2007). The Inclusive Classroom Strategies for Effective Instruction. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.


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Mayo Clinic. (2008, May 31). Retrieved October 1, 2009, from the World Wide Web:

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/autism/DS00348/DSECTION=causes

Shelton, D. (2009, July). Handle With Care. Essence, 40(3), 136-136. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Thiessen, M., & O'Hanlon, M. (n.d.). Kids with autism deserve better. USA Today, Retrieved September 25, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Wang, Shirley S.  (2009, June 2). Drug Fails To Benefit Autistic Kids. Wall Street Journal  (Eastern Edition),  p. B.8.  Retrieved September 25, 2009, from Wall Street Journal. (Document ID: 1737580231).

Whelan, D. (2009, August). The Equal Opportunity Disorder. School Library Journal, 55(8), 30-34. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Willis, Clarissa. (2006). Teaching Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Beltsville, Maryland: Gryphon House Inc.


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