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Journal #28. Judicial Review – power that allows the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress to be unconstitutional – established by Marbury v. Madison Inauguration – swearing in ceremony – usually for a president. Jefferson as President and the Louisiana Purchase. 10.1 and 10.2.

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journal 28
Journal #28
  • Judicial Review – power that allows the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress to be unconstitutional – established by Marbury v. Madison
  • Inauguration – swearing in ceremony – usually for a president
bonus questions
Bonus Questions
  • Who was the 2nd President of the United States?
  • What were the first 2 political parties that formed before the election of 1796?
  • What was the nickname of the USS Constitution and where is it located today?
  • What did the 12th Amendment do? Why was this necessary?
jefferson s inauguration
Jefferson’s Inauguration
  • Washington and Adams had worn fancy clothes and taken carriages to their inaugurations
  • Jefferson wore plain clothes and walked from his house to the Capital Building
  • John Adams was upset and left the city
  • The Republican Party was celebrating a huge victory in which they won the presidency and both houses of Congress
    • This was the first transfer of power from one party to another in U.S. history
the importance of jefferson s election
The Importance of Jefferson’s Election
  • Jefferson’s election was seen as proof that the country could change leaders peacefully – which was rare at this time
  • Jefferson read his speech in a quiet voice, he tried to comfort the Federalists by promising to run the government fairly
  • “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists…Let us then, with courage and confidence pursue our attachment to union and representative government.”
jefferson in office
Jefferson in Office
  • Jefferson needed to put republican ideas into practice
  • He chose James Madison as secretary of state and Albert Gallatin as secretary of the treasury
  • They set new Republican policies
    • They lowered military spending – reducing the size of the army and navy
    • They got rid of taxes, like the taxes on whiskey
    • He wanted to reduce spending to decrease U.S. debt
    • Jefferson kept the Bank of the United States – a federalist idea
    • He also kept some Federalists in government jobs
john marshall 1755 1835
John Marshall (1755-1835)
  • In the House of Representatives in 1799, Secretary of State under Adams
  • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801-1835, a Federalist judge appointed by Adams
  • Marshall and Jefferson disagreed about many political issues
  • Made many important decisions
marbury v madison
Marbury v. Madison
  • Background: Before he left office in 1801, Adams appointed many new Federalist judges
  • Jefferson did not like this, so he told James Madison not to fill out forms that allowed these judges to begin working
  • What: One of the judges, William Marbury, asked the Supreme Court to force the executive branch to fill out the forms based upon the Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Marshall rules that the Court did not have the power to force Madison to give Marbury his papers and that the Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional
  • Why: this case established the power of judicial review, which greatly increased the power of the Supreme Court
the spanish in america
The Spanish in America
  • The Spanish worried about how to keep American settlers out of their territory
  • Under a secret treaty, Spain trades Louisiana to France
french louisiana
French Louisiana
  • In 1800 Napoleon Bonaparte was the leader of France
  • His political ideas and military skill caused fear throughout Europe
  • As he conquered neighboring countries he wanted to rebuild France’s empire in North America
  • Napoleon wanted to send troops to Louisiana to expand his empire
french problems in haiti
French Problems in Haiti
  • In order to send troops to Louisiana, Napoleon needed to take back St. Domingue (Haiti)
  • Toussaint-Louverture’stroops defeat the French troops in 1802 – this prevents Napoleon from sending troops to Louisiana
new orleans
New Orleans
  • The U.S. was worried that the French could interfere with their trade on the Mississippi
  • Jefferson wanted to find a peaceful answer
  • He sends ambassadors Robert Livingston and James Monroe to France to try to buy New Orleans and West Florida
  • The French foreign minister asks the U.S. ambassadors how much they would offer for the entire territory
the louisiana purchase1
The Louisiana Purchase
  • Napoleon wanted to sell Louisiana for a few reasons
    • He was about to go to war with Great Britain – he didn’t want to fight 2 wars
    • He needed money to supply his army in Europe
    • He wanted to limit Britain’s power in North America
the louisiana purchase2
The Louisiana Purchase
  • Congress authorizes Livingston and Monroe to offer $10 million for the Louisiana Territory
  • The French ask for $15 million and the treaty is signed on May 2, 1803
  • Jefferson agrees to spend more because he thought it was best for the country
  • The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the U.S.
the mission of discovery
The Mission of Discovery
  • Jefferson wanted to know more about the people, land, and rivers of the West.
  • He chose Meriwether Lewis, a former soldier and his personal assistant, to lead the expedition
  • Lewis chose William Clark to be the co-leader of the expedition
  • The pair spent months preparing for the trip by studying with experts and selecting skilled frontiersmen to go with them
the goals of the lewis and clark expedition
The Goals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • To map the area that they traveled through
  • To find a water route to the Pacific Ocean
  • To inform the Native Americans that they met that their land now belonged to the U.S.
  • To describe the people, places, plants and animals that they encountered
lewis and clark
Lewis and Clark
  • The expedition left St. Louis in 1804, following the Missouri River
  • They spend a winter with the Mandan in North Dakota
  • They eventually get to the end of the Missouri River, Sacagawea helps them get horses and guides them through the Rocky Mountains
  • They then follow the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, arriving in November 1805
lewis and clark1
Lewis and Clark
  • Started their return trip in March 1806 and arrived in St. Louis in September 1806
  • People celebrated their return
  • The expedition gained valuable information about western lands, people, plants, and animals
pike s exploration
Pike’s Exploration
  • In 1806 a young army officer named Zebulon Pike was sent on a mission to find the starting point of the Red River
  • He tries to climb a mountain in Colorado now known as Pikes Peak, then heads south
  • He is arrested by Spanish officials in New Spain, they accuse him of spying