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  1. Elizabethan Poets: Ben Jonson Henry Howard Robert Herrick Edmund Spenser George Herbert Christopher Marlowe Henry Vaughn Philip Sidney John Suckling Walter Raleigh Richard Lovelace Andrew Marvell John Donne Thomas Wyatt

  2. Preparation for today’s lesson[15 minutes]: 1. Take out printed copy of original sonnet and prepare poster according to model. Submit poster when finished. 2. Practice oral reading and “lesson” to present Shakespearean sonnet. Consider the scoring rubric as you practice. 3. Present Shakespearean sonnets as a group “lesson.”

  3. KeyPoints to UnderstandingShakespearean Sonnets: • All of Shakespeare’s sonnets had the same rhyme scheme: abab/cdcd/efef/gg • All of Shakespeare’s sonnets include the same structure: • 3 quatrains (groups of four lines) and a • rhymed couplet (two lines that rhyme), and finally • a turn, or a change in tone (usually marked by a signal word such as “but” or “yet”)

  4. ADD TO TONE: Apostrophe Anaphora Antithesis Allusion Conceit/metaphor Chiasmus Diction/word choice Euphony/dissonance Hyperbole Imagery Irony Elegy Onomatopoeia Paradox Personification Repetition Synecdoche Turn Understatement DO NOT USE: Enjambment Sonnet form Rhyme scheme Alliteration Masculine rhyme Feminine rhyme Internal rhyme

  5. Upcoming schedule • Wednesday: Unit test • Thursday: Class essay • Friday: Project presentations • Monday: Oral recitation of sonnets/poem analysis and reaction paragraphs due

  6. Elizabethan Poetry The Elizabethan poets were humanists; they believed in three essential ideas: • LOVE (despite its hardships) is essential to enjoying a “good life.” • TIME is a fleeting moment; making plans for the future is meaningless. All we have is NOW to live fully in the present. • DEATH is to be appreciated, not feared; however, dying with unresolved regrets is tragic. Flesh and bone are temporal. The moment we die, we become part of the “one big soul that belongs to everyone”: the AFTERLIFE.

  7. Psalm 23 The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters. He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake. Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over. Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever.

  8. The Petrarchan Sonnet (also known as the Italian-style sonnet) Francis Petrarch—known as the Father of Humanism—was in love with a woman named Laura. She refused him for the very proper reason that she was already married to another man. Her presence causes him unspeakable joy, but his unrequited love creates unendurable desires and inner conflicts between the ardent lover and the humble man. Because it is impossible to reconcile the two, his quest for love is a hopeless, endless agony.

  9. Spenser’s Amoretti#75 One day I wrote her name upon the strand, But came the waves and washed it away: Again I wrote it with a second hand, But came the tide, and made my pains his prey. “Vain man,” said she, “that doest in vain assay A mortal thing so to immortalize, For I myself shall like to this decay, And eek my name be wiped out likewise.” “Not so” (quoth I), “let baser things devise To die in dust, but you shall live by fame: My verse your virtues rare shall eternize, And in the heavens write your glorious name. Where whenas Death shall all the world subdue, Our love shall live, and later life renew.”

  10. Pastoral poetry • Poetry that relates to rural, naturalistic life and scenes; emphasis on the natural, pastoral life • Many pastoral poems are carpe diem in nature • They aim to “woo” or entice a partner to embrace the poet’s quality of life • An “invitation” to accept one’s inherent nature, values, skills and talents

  11. Woo Poem Assignment • Write a pastoral poem of today that aims to entice, or “woo” your partner for friendship. • The poem should comprise four ABAB quatrains • Focus: think of your values, morals, talents, skills that you could offer your partner • Emphasis on friendship---NOT a romantic relationship! • Due tomorrow. Write your poem neatly on your index card.

  12. “To His Coy Mistress” Reread the poem. In one sentence, explain why it is an example of a Cavalier poem. In a concise paragraph, explain how (through precise images, metaphors and word choice) Marvell creates both a pastoral invitation/woo and a carpe diemelement in this poem? 10 points

  13. Metaphysical poetry • Meta = transcending beyond • Physical = the real and tangible realm • Characteristics: • Deals with “deep” subjects like love, death, faith in God • Conversational style, but formal structure • Intense meditations • Rich in imagery and metaphysical conceits

  14. In your group: • Reread and summarize the plot of each of the assigned poems in your packet. • Label each as Pastoral/Cavalier/Metaphysical/Petrarchan. • Using your poetic terms/definitions, HIGHLIGHT AND LABEL TWO EXAMPLES OF EACH TERM within the assigned poems in your packet. • STUDY FOR TOMORROW’S QUIZ!

  15. KeyPoints to UnderstandingShakespearean Sonnets: • All of Shakespeare’s sonnets had the same rhyme scheme: abab/cdcd/efef/gg • All of Shakespeare’s sonnets include the same structure: • 3 quatrains (groups of four lines) and a • rhymed couplet (two lines that rhyme), and finally • a turn, or a change in tone (usually marked by a signal word such as “but” or “yet”)

  16. In your group: • Read your assigned sonnet for understanding. Locate its turn. • Practice reading the sonnet aloud and explicating it quatrain by quatrain. • You will READ, PRESENT and TEACH this assigned sonnet to the class. • Let Mrs. Peters know if you need help. Do not teach something that you do not know!

  17. Cavalier poetry • Known as carpe diem, or “Seize the moment” poetry • Characteristics: • Light, airy tone and subject • Highly polished and mannerly • Love is depicted as carefree, rather than serious • Sprezzatura: careless grace; effortless style • Aimed to woo and TO WARN!

  18. To His Coy (shy) Mistress If we only had enough time Then his coyness lady, would be fine. My strong love should grow Bigger than buildings, and more slow…

  19. To His Coy (shy) Mistress _____________________________, Then his coyness lady, __________. My ___________ love should grow _______ than _________, and more slow…

  20. The Elizabethan Age of Poetry English Renaissance 1485 - 1660

  21. Art in the Renaissance • The Sistine Chapel . . . human beings are noble and capable of perfection . . .

  22. Humanism: The Age of Scholarship Milton, in his essay Of Education: The aim of humanism was “not to produce scholars but to fit students to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously all the duties, public and private, of peace and war.”

  23. The Proliferation of the University KNOWLEDGE IS POWER! (Francis Bacon)

  24. Printing Press With new creation of moveable type and printing presses, books could now become available for mass production…and consumption. As a result, the English become more knowledgeable, more educated, and more powerful.

  25. Factors which led to the development of the Protestant Reformation: • Public resentment with the Catholic church regarding mandatory tithes and corruption in leadership • King Henry the VIIIth in need of a male heir • He is in love with Anne Boleyn and wants a divorce from current wife Catharine of Aragon

  26. King Henry VIII • Second heir to the House of Tudor, after his deceased older brother Arthur • He is more popularly known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome ultimately led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the dissolution of monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England • His struggle for a male heir led him to marry six wives

  27. Catherine of Aragon (Wife one…divorced for several reasons) Mother of Mary I

  28. Anne Boelyn(wife two…beheaded for treason and heresy) Mother of Elizabeth I

  29. Jane Seymour(wife three: “my one true wife”…she dies) Mother of Edward VI

  30. Anne of Cleves(wife four…divorced for one major reason!)

  31. Catherine Howard(wife five…beheaded for adultery/treason!)

  32. Catherine Parr(wife six…survives Henry)

  33. After The Death of King Henry the 8th • His daughter, Mary, born of Catharine of Aragon and a fervent Catholic, becomes queen and reinstates the Catholic church in England • She acquires the name “Bloody Mary” because she has hundreds of Protestant “heretics” burned at the stake

  34. Mary dies; Princess Elizabeth becomes queen! Good Queen Bess! • She reinstates the Protestant church as the National Church of England (and becomes excommunicated from the Catholic Church) • She resurges the Royal Navy which defeats the Spanish Armada’s effort to reclaim England as Catholic • She encourages national writers, musicians, artists and architects to create new works which depict the humanist view of the Renaissance • She reigns for over forty years, thwarting enemy attempts to marry her off and to assassinate her

  35. Threats to Elizabeth’s Throne • Mary, Queen of Scots (Elizabeth’s cousin) • Mary, a devout Catholic, denounces Elizabeth’s legitimacy as queen (since Elizabeth is Protestant) • Death threats plague Elizabeth’s reign; Mary is beheaded for treason