英国文学选读. 主讲教师：林春阳. 本节课讲授重点： The Renaissance Poets: 1. William Shakespeare 2. France Bacon. Part Ⅳ The Renaissance. History Background Literary Characteristic. Ⅰ. History Background. The 16th century in England was a period of the breaking
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1. William Shakespeare
2. France Bacon
The 16th century in England was a period of the breaking
up of feudal relations and the establishing of the foundations
☺The manufactories were developing and the wool trade was
rapidly growing in bulk.
☺At the beginning of the 16th century absolute monarchy(君
主专制) was formed in England.
King Henry Ⅷ (亨利八世)—1509—1547
A. The consolidations of ecclesiastical (基督教会) and secular
(非天主教会) power under one King that can greatly furthered
the strengthening of English monarchy.
(2) dissolved all the monasteries and abbeys in the country
(3) confiscated their lands
(4) proclaimed himself head of the Church of England (英国
B. At the same time, in order to undermine the power of the
independent feudal lords and strengthen his own role, King
Henry disbanded their feudal bodyguard.
C. Supporters of the Absolute Monarchy
(1) The old English aristocracies having been exterminated in
the course of the War of the Roses(玫瑰战争), a new nobility,
totally dependent on the King’s power, came to fore. They are
the gentry, the main supporters of the absolute monarchy.
(2) At the same time Henry Ⅷ policy found support among
the rich townsfolk—the merchants and handicraftsmen who
were developing into a new class—the class of bourgeoisie(资
产阶级). Because the rapid growth of trade and the formation
of the national market demanded political centralization and
consolidation of monarchy.
☺Absolute monarchy in England reached its summit during
the reign of Queen Elisabeth (1558—1603)
☺The progress of bourgeois economy made England a power-
-ful state and enabled her in 1588 to inflict a defeat on Spanish
☺We can see the aggravation of the contradiction between the
wealth of the ruling class and the poverty of the people.
☺Together with the development of bourgeois relationships
and the formations of the English national state this period is
marked by the flourishing of national cultures known as the
☺It originally indicated a revival of the classical (Greek and
Rome) arts and sciences after the dark ages of medieval.
☺The study and propagation of classical learning and art was
carried on by the progressive thinkers of the humanists.
☺They held their chief interest in man, his environment and
doings and bravely fought for the emancipation of man from
the tyranny of the church and religious dogmas.
☺Thomas More (托马斯·莫尔)
(1) time: at the beginning of the 16th century
(2) work: Utopia(乌托邦)
(3) contents: the profound and truthful pictures of the people’s
sufferings and put forward his ideal of a future happy society.
☺Francis Bacon (弗朗西斯·培根)—a great English scientist
(1) time: at the end of the century
(2) content: his famous philosophical and literary works
A. In the first half of the 16th century there appeared in Britain.
(1) source: the new poetical forms that borrowed freely from
English popular songs and Italian and French poetry.
☺Thomas Wyatt (托马斯·怀亚特) —the first to introduce the
sonnet(十四行诗) into English literature
☺Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (萨利伯爵亨利·霍华德)
B. In the second half of the 16th century it became widespread
☺Thomas Campion (托马斯·坎皮恩)
☺ Edmund Spenser (埃德姆·斯宾塞)—wrote the greatest epic
poem “The Fairy Queen” (仙后)
Novels– according to the content, it divided into two kinds.
A. about the court life
(1) content: dealing with the court life and gallantry
☺John Lyly (约翰·利力)
“Eupheus”(尤菲斯)—he gives the term “euphuism” (绮丽体)
designating an affected style of court speech
☺Thomas Loge (托马斯·洛基)
B. the realistic tendencies
(1) content: devoted every day's life of craftsman, merchants
and other representatives of the lower class
☺ Thomas Deloney (托马斯·德洛尼)
☺ Thomas Nashe (托马斯·纳什)
Drama—witness a particular development in Renaissance
☺Christopher Marlowe (克里斯托弗·马洛)—the greatest of
the pioneer of English drama
(1) reform the genre in England
(2) perfect the language and verse of dramatic works
(3) make blank verse as the principal vehicle of expression in
☺Robert Greene (罗伯特·格林)
(1) “George Green”(乔治格林)
(2) “The Pinner of Wakefield”(威克菲尔德的别针人)
belongs to those rare geniuses of mankind who have become
landmarks in the history of world culture. The literary work of
William Shakespeare are the great landmark in the history of
world literature for he was one of the first founder of realism,
a master hand at realistic portrayal of human characters and
No wonder Shakespeare’s works were so fondly cherished
by the greatest minds of mankind, and among them by—Karl
Marx (卡尔·马克思), who regarded Aeschylus (埃斯库罗斯)
and Shakespeare as “the two greatest dramatic geniuses of the
world has ever known”. It is well known in what high esteem
Shakespeare was held by such giants of world literature as for
Milton (弥尔顿), Goethe (歌德), Stendhal (斯丹达尔), and
☺He was born on the 23nd of April, 1564, in the Stratford-on-
Avon (在埃文河畔斯特拉特福), Warwickshire (沃威克). His
father, John Shakespeare, the son of the small farmer, settled
in Stratford and entered into trade.
☺At the age of 7 Shakespeare was sent to the local grammar
school, which he attended for six years. Besides reading and
writing he was taught Latin and Greek.
☺In 1577 he was taken from the school and for some time had
to help his father in the trade.
☺In his younger years, he was the schoolmaster in the country
Shakespeare had poached upon the lands of Sir Thomas Lucy,
a rich landlord and country magistrate. Once Shakespeare was
caught by Lucy’s keepers and severely punished Shakespeare
avenged himself by composing a satirical ballad; very soon it
became so popular throughout the countryside that whenever
Sir Thomas Lucy appeared he was met with the strains of the
ballad. Sir Thomas was enraged and redoubled his persecution
to such a degree that Shakespeare was compelled to leave his
hometown—Stratford and seed refuge in London.
☺When in the year 1585 a son was born to Shakespeare, the
boy was named Hamnet, obviously after Hamlet, the hero of
the tragedy written by Thomas Kyd (托马斯·基德) , a gifted
playwright and predecessor of Shakespeare.
☺Shakespeare arrived in London in the year 1586 or 1587. At
that time the dramas was rapidly gaining popularity among the
go through many hardships. In one way or another he became
acquainted with certain theatrical companies.
☺By the end of the 1580 Shakespeare is known to have been
one of actor and playwright in one of the leading companies of
player — “Lord Chamberlain‘s Company” (坎伯莱勋爵公司
公司) directed by James Burbage.
☺Later on he became a shareholder of the theatre and having
proved himself to be a practical and just man, he soon won the
respect and love of his fellows.
proprietor, lasted till the year 1612 when he retired form the
stage and returned to Stratford.
☺Shakespeare died on the 23rd of April, 1616.
☺For more than 25 years Shakespeare had associated with the
best theaters of England.
☺His earliest task at theatre was the remodeling and partially
rewriting of old plays. He continued to do it for several years
which may be termed his years of apprenticeship in dramatic
☺During twenty-two years of his literary work he produced
37 plays, 2 narrative poems and 154 sonnet.
☺His literary works may be divided into three major periods:
the first period from 1590 to 1600; the second from 1601 to
1608; the third from 1609 to 1612.
☺His first original play written in about 1590 was and the King Henry
Ⅵ (亨利六世), parts tow and three, the first part having been
written earlier by another dramatist and only retouched by him.
☺In the first period:
1590 The Second Part of King Henry Ⅵ(亨利六世中)
The Third Part of King Henry Ⅵ (亨利六世下)
1591 The First Part of King Henry Ⅵ (亨利六世上)
1592 The Life and Death of King Richard Ⅲ (理查三世)
The Comedy of Errors (错误喜剧)
1593 Titus Andronicus (泰马斯安东尼)
The Taming of the Shrew (驯悍记)
1594 and the The Two Gentlemen of Verona (维洛那二绅士)
Love’s Labor’s Lost (爱的徒劳)
Romeo and Juliet (罗密欧与朱丽叶)
1595 The Life and Death of Richard Ⅱ (理查三世)
A Midsummer Night’s Dream (仲夏夜之梦)*
1596 The Life and Death of King John (约翰王)
The Merchant of Venice (威尼斯商人)*
1597 The First Part of King Henry Ⅳ (亨利四世上)
The Second Part of King Henry Ⅳ (亨利四世下)
1598 Much Ado About Nothing (无事生非)
The Merry Wives of Windsor (温莎的风流女人)
The Life of King Henry Ⅴ (亨利五世)
1599 and the The Life and Death of Julius and Caesar (尤利乌斯凯
As You Like It (皆大欢喜)*
1600 Twelfth Night, or, What You Will (第十二夜)*
☺In the second period:
1601 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (哈姆雷特)*
1602 Troilus and Cressida (特洛伊斯与克里西德)
All’s Well That Ends Well (终成眷属)
1604 Measure for Measure (一报还一报)
Othello, the Moore of Venice (奥赛罗)*
1605 King Lear (李尔王)*
The Tragedy of Mecbeth (麦克白)*
1606 and the Antony and Cleopatra (安乐尼和克莉奥佩拉)
1607 The Tragedy of Coriolanus (科里奥那斯)
Timon of Athens (雅典的戴蒙)
1608 Pericles, Prince of Tyre (伯利克利)
☺In the third period:
1609 Cymbeline, King of Britain (辛白林)
1610 The Winter’s Tale (冬天的故事)
1612 The Tempest (暴风雨)
The Life of King Henry Ⅷ(亨利八世)
☺Other poems written during the three periods:
Venus and Adonis (1592维纳斯与安东尼)
A study of Bacon takes us beyond the limits of the reign of
Elizabeth, but not beyond the continued influences of the reign.
Bacon belongs with Sidney(锡德尼) and Raleigh(拉雷) in that
groups who aimed to be men of affairs, reformers, explorers,
politicians rather than writers of prose or poetry.
☺He was of noble birth, and from an early ages was attached
to Elizabeth’s court.
☺Bacon was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon (尼古拉斯培根),
Lord Keeper of the Seal (掌玺大臣), and of the learned Ann
Cook (安·库克), sister-in-law to Lord Burleigh (伯雷勋爵),
greatest of the queen’s statesmen.
attracted to the court, and as a child was called by Elizabeth
her “Little Lord Keeper”.
☺At 12 he went to Cambridge, and after graduating at 16 he
took up law.
☺At seventeen he was in France, in the trains of the English
ambassador, when his father suddenly died, and leaving him
without adequate means.
☺Bacon completed his legal education, was called to the bar,
and at the age of 26 was elected to Parliament.
☺He made little progress during Elizabeth’s reign.
☺He received a knighthood(骑士) during JamesⅠ reign.
and between 1612 and 1621 he rose through a succession of
stages until he became Lord High Chancellor(大法官兼上院
议长), the head of the legal system of England, and made peer
with the titles of Baron Verulam and Viscount St Albans(弗鲁
☺He was an admirable judge, but in the course of his raising
he have made enemies who finally combined to bring against
him charge of bribery and the betrayal of justice. Bacon's guilt
lay less in financial corruption than in great readiness to allow
court influence to affect a legal decision but he was convicted,
deprived of his offices, and banished form London.
☺The remaining of his life were spent in literary and philoso-
☺Pope(蒲柏) describe him as “the wisest, brightest, meanest
Bacon’s works may be divided into three classes:
☺the philosophical work
Advancement of Learning(学术进展)—publish in English in
Novum Organum(新工具)—publish in Latin in 1620
De Augmentis(大西洋)—publish in Latin in 1623
☺the professional work—the largest and most important
Maxims of the Law(法律箴言)
Reading on the Statute of Uses(谈使用法则)
☺the literary work states,
Essays(随笔)—the most important one
(1) Tens of these he published in 1597
(2) They are reissued and extended in 1612 and again in 1625.
B. content—they deal with a great various subjects
(1) Some quite general like those Of Truth (论真理)and Of
(2) Some on questions of individual behavior like Of Revenge
(论报复)and Of Friendship(论友谊)
(3) Many on problem of statesmanship like Of the True Great-
-ness of Kingdoms and Estates(论治国之道)
The essays of Bacon are so highly esteemed that the critics
Hallam(哈莱姆) declares it would be “derogatory to a man of
the slightest claims to polite letters” to be unacquainted with
them. His first venture was tiny volume called Essays, Religi-
-ous Meditations, Places Persuasion and Dissuasion(随笔,宗
教思考、说服与讨论). This was modeled upon French work
by Montaigne(蒙田Essais, 1580) and was considered of small
consequences by the authors. As times went on, his ambitious
works were overlooked in favor of his essays, so he paid more
attention to the latter, revising and enlarging his work until the
final edition of 58 essays appeared in 1625. Then it was Bacon
wrote, states, “I do publish my Essays, which of all my works have
been most current；for that, as it seems, they come home to
men’s business and bosoms.” If one must choose out of such a
storehouse, we would suggest Studies (论读书), Goodness (论
善良), Riches(论财富) , Atheism (论无神论),Unity in Religion
(论宗教合一), Adversity (论逆境), Friendship (论友谊), and
Great Place(伟大的复兴) as introduction to Bacon’s worldly-