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英国文学选读. 主讲教师:林春阳. 本节课讲授重点: The Renaissance Poets: 1. William Shakespeare 2. France Bacon. Part Ⅳ The Renaissance. History Background Literary Characteristic. Ⅰ. History Background. The 16th century in England was a period of the breaking

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英国文学选读

主讲教师:林春阳


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本节课讲授重点:

  • The Renaissance

  • Poets:

    1. William Shakespeare

    2. France Bacon


Part the renaissance
Part ⅣThe Renaissance

  • History Background

  • Literary Characteristic


History background
Ⅰ. History Background

The 16th century in England was a period of the breaking

up of feudal relations and the establishing of the foundations

of capitalism.

☺The manufactories were developing and the wool trade was

rapidly growing in bulk.

☺At the beginning of the 16th century absolute monarchy(君

主专制) was formed in England.

King Henry Ⅷ (亨利八世)—1509—1547

A. The consolidations of ecclesiastical (基督教会) and secular

(非天主教会) power under one King that can greatly furthered

the strengthening of English monarchy.


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(1) broke off with the Pope(天主教皇)

(2) dissolved all the monasteries and abbeys in the country

(3) confiscated their lands

(4) proclaimed himself head of the Church of England (英国

国教)

B. At the same time, in order to undermine the power of the

independent feudal lords and strengthen his own role, King

Henry disbanded their feudal bodyguard.

C. Supporters of the Absolute Monarchy

(1) The old English aristocracies having been exterminated in

the course of the War of the Roses(玫瑰战争), a new nobility,

totally dependent on the King’s power, came to fore. They are

the gentry, the main supporters of the absolute monarchy.


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(2) At the same time Henry Ⅷ policy found support among

the rich townsfolk—the merchants and handicraftsmen who

were developing into a new class—the class of bourgeoisie(资

产阶级). Because the rapid growth of trade and the formation

of the national market demanded political centralization and

consolidation of monarchy.

☺Absolute monarchy in England reached its summit during

the reign of Queen Elisabeth (1558—1603)

☺The progress of bourgeois economy made England a power-

-ful state and enabled her in 1588 to inflict a defeat on Spanish

Invincible Armada(西班牙无敌舰队).

☺We can see the aggravation of the contradiction between the

wealth of the ruling class and the poverty of the people.


Literature
. Literature

Renaissance

☺Together with the development of bourgeois relationships

and the formations of the English national state this period is

marked by the flourishing of national cultures known as the

Renaissance(文艺复兴).

☺It originally indicated a revival of the classical (Greek and

Rome) arts and sciences after the dark ages of medieval.

☺The study and propagation of classical learning and art was

carried on by the progressive thinkers of the humanists.

☺They held their chief interest in man, his environment and

doings and bravely fought for the emancipation of man from

the tyranny of the church and religious dogmas.


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Humanist

☺Thomas More (托马斯·莫尔)

(1) time: at the beginning of the 16th century

(2) work: Utopia(乌托邦)

(3) contents: the profound and truthful pictures of the people’s

sufferings and put forward his ideal of a future happy society.

☺Francis Bacon (弗朗西斯·培根)—a great English scientist

and philosopher

(1) time: at the end of the century

(2) content: his famous philosophical and literary works


Literary forms
Literary Forms

  • Lyrical Poems

  • Novels

  • Drama


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Lyrical Poems

A. In the first half of the 16th century there appeared in Britain.

(1) source: the new poetical forms that borrowed freely from

English popular songs and Italian and French poetry.

(2) poets:

☺Thomas Wyatt (托马斯·怀亚特) —the first to introduce the

sonnet(十四行诗) into English literature

☺Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (萨利伯爵亨利·霍华德)

B. In the second half of the 16th century it became widespread

in England.

☺Philip Sidney(菲利普·锡德尼)

☺Thomas Campion (托马斯·坎皮恩)

☺ Edmund Spenser (埃德姆·斯宾塞)—wrote the greatest epic

poem “The Fairy Queen” (仙后)


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Novels– according to the content, it divided into two kinds.

A. about the court life

(1) content: dealing with the court life and gallantry

(2) writers

☺John Lyly (约翰·利力)

“Eupheus”(尤菲斯)—he gives the term “euphuism” (绮丽体)

designating an affected style of court speech

☺Thomas Loge (托马斯·洛基)

B. the realistic tendencies

(1) content: devoted every day's life of craftsman, merchants

and other representatives of the lower class

(2) writers

☺ Thomas Deloney (托马斯·德洛尼)

☺ Thomas Nashe (托马斯·纳什)


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Drama—witness a particular development in Renaissance

☺Christopher Marlowe (克里斯托弗·马洛)—the greatest of

the pioneer of English drama

(1) reform the genre in England

(2) perfect the language and verse of dramatic works

(3) make blank verse as the principal vehicle of expression in

drama

☺Robert Greene (罗伯特·格林)

(1) “George Green”(乔治格林)

(2) “The Pinner of Wakefield”(威克菲尔德的别针人)


William shakespeare 1564 1616
William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)(1564—1616)

  • Brief Account of Author's Life

  • The Main Literary Work


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The greatest of all English authors, William Shakespeare

belongs to those rare geniuses of mankind who have become

landmarks in the history of world culture. The literary work of

William Shakespeare are the great landmark in the history of

world literature for he was one of the first founder of realism,

a master hand at realistic portrayal of human characters and

relations.

No wonder Shakespeare’s works were so fondly cherished

by the greatest minds of mankind, and among them by—Karl

Marx (卡尔·马克思), who regarded Aeschylus (埃斯库罗斯)

and Shakespeare as “the two greatest dramatic geniuses of the

world has ever known”. It is well known in what high esteem

Shakespeare was held by such giants of world literature as for

Milton (弥尔顿), Goethe (歌德), Stendhal (斯丹达尔), and

Pushkin(普希金).


Brief account of author s life
Ⅰ. Brief Account of Author’s Life

☺He was born on the 23nd of April, 1564, in the Stratford-on-

Avon (在埃文河畔斯特拉特福), Warwickshire (沃威克). His

father, John Shakespeare, the son of the small farmer, settled

in Stratford and entered into trade.

☺At the age of 7 Shakespeare was sent to the local grammar

school, which he attended for six years. Besides reading and

writing he was taught Latin and Greek.

☺In 1577 he was taken from the school and for some time had

to help his father in the trade.

☺In his younger years, he was the schoolmaster in the country

school.


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☺On the other hand, there is a legend according to which the

Shakespeare had poached upon the lands of Sir Thomas Lucy,

a rich landlord and country magistrate. Once Shakespeare was

caught by Lucy’s keepers and severely punished Shakespeare

avenged himself by composing a satirical ballad; very soon it

became so popular throughout the countryside that whenever

Sir Thomas Lucy appeared he was met with the strains of the

ballad. Sir Thomas was enraged and redoubled his persecution

to such a degree that Shakespeare was compelled to leave his

hometown—Stratford and seed refuge in London.


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☺In 1582 Shakespeare married a farmer’s daughter Anne Ha-

-thaway(安妮哈斯维).

☺When in the year 1585 a son was born to Shakespeare, the

boy was named Hamnet, obviously after Hamlet, the hero of

the tragedy written by Thomas Kyd (托马斯·基德) , a gifted

playwright and predecessor of Shakespeare.

☺Shakespeare arrived in London in the year 1586 or 1587. At

that time the dramas was rapidly gaining popularity among the

people.


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☺During first years of Shakespeare's life in London he had to

go through many hardships. In one way or another he became

acquainted with certain theatrical companies.

☺By the end of the 1580 Shakespeare is known to have been

one of actor and playwright in one of the leading companies of

player — “Lord Chamberlain‘s Company” (坎伯莱勋爵公司

公司) directed by James Burbage.

☺Later on he became a shareholder of the theatre and having

proved himself to be a practical and just man, he soon won the

respect and love of his fellows.


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☺Shakespeare’s activities as a dramatist, poet, actor and the

proprietor, lasted till the year 1612 when he retired form the

stage and returned to Stratford.

☺Shakespeare died on the 23rd of April, 1616.


The main literary works
and the . The Main Literary Works

☺For more than 25 years Shakespeare had associated with the

best theaters of England.

☺His earliest task at theatre was the remodeling and partially

rewriting of old plays. He continued to do it for several years

which may be termed his years of apprenticeship in dramatic

art.

☺During twenty-two years of his literary work he produced

37 plays, 2 narrative poems and 154 sonnet.

☺His literary works may be divided into three major periods:

the first period from 1590 to 1600; the second from 1601 to

1608; the third from 1609 to 1612.


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☺His first original play written in about 1590 was and the King Henry

Ⅵ (亨利六世), parts tow and three, the first part having been

written earlier by another dramatist and only retouched by him.

☺In the first period:

1590 The Second Part of King Henry Ⅵ(亨利六世中)

The Third Part of King Henry Ⅵ (亨利六世下)

1591 The First Part of King Henry Ⅵ (亨利六世上)

1592 The Life and Death of King Richard Ⅲ (理查三世)

The Comedy of Errors (错误喜剧)

1593 Titus Andronicus (泰马斯安东尼)

The Taming of the Shrew (驯悍记)


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1594 and the The Two Gentlemen of Verona (维洛那二绅士)

Love’s Labor’s Lost (爱的徒劳)

Romeo and Juliet (罗密欧与朱丽叶)

1595 The Life and Death of Richard Ⅱ (理查三世)

A Midsummer Night’s Dream (仲夏夜之梦)*

1596 The Life and Death of King John (约翰王)

The Merchant of Venice (威尼斯商人)*

1597 The First Part of King Henry Ⅳ (亨利四世上)

The Second Part of King Henry Ⅳ (亨利四世下)

1598 Much Ado About Nothing (无事生非)

The Merry Wives of Windsor (温莎的风流女人)

The Life of King Henry Ⅴ (亨利五世)


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1599 and the The Life and Death of Julius and Caesar (尤利乌斯凯

撒)

As You Like It (皆大欢喜)*

1600 Twelfth Night, or, What You Will (第十二夜)*

注:*号作品为莎士比亚四大喜剧

☺In the second period:

1601 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (哈姆雷特)*

1602 Troilus and Cressida (特洛伊斯与克里西德)

All’s Well That Ends Well (终成眷属)

1604 Measure for Measure (一报还一报)

Othello, the Moore of Venice (奥赛罗)*

1605 King Lear (李尔王)*

The Tragedy of Mecbeth (麦克白)*

注:*号作品为莎士比亚四大悲剧


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1606 and the Antony and Cleopatra (安乐尼和克莉奥佩拉)

1607 The Tragedy of Coriolanus (科里奥那斯)

Timon of Athens (雅典的戴蒙)

1608 Pericles, Prince of Tyre (伯利克利)

☺In the third period:

1609 Cymbeline, King of Britain (辛白林)

1610 The Winter’s Tale (冬天的故事)

1612 The Tempest (暴风雨)

The Life of King Henry Ⅷ(亨利八世)

☺Other poems written during the three periods:

Venus and Adonis (1592维纳斯与安东尼)

Lucrece (1592—1593鲁克丽丝受辱记)

Sonnets(1593—1598十四行诗)


Francis bacon 1561 1626
Francis Bacon ( and the 弗朗西斯·培根)(1561—1626)

  • Brief Account of Author's Life

  • The Main Literary Work

  • Commentary


Brief account of author s life1
Ⅰ. Brief Account of Author and the ’s Life

A study of Bacon takes us beyond the limits of the reign of

Elizabeth, but not beyond the continued influences of the reign.

Bacon belongs with Sidney(锡德尼) and Raleigh(拉雷) in that

groups who aimed to be men of affairs, reformers, explorers,

politicians rather than writers of prose or poetry.

☺He was of noble birth, and from an early ages was attached

to Elizabeth’s court.

☺Bacon was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon (尼古拉斯培根),

Lord Keeper of the Seal (掌玺大臣), and of the learned Ann

Cook (安·库克), sister-in-law to Lord Burleigh (伯雷勋爵),

greatest of the queen’s statesmen.


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☺From these connections, as well as from native gift, he was

attracted to the court, and as a child was called by Elizabeth

her “Little Lord Keeper”.

☺At 12 he went to Cambridge, and after graduating at 16 he

took up law.

☺At seventeen he was in France, in the trains of the English

ambassador, when his father suddenly died, and leaving him

without adequate means.

☺Bacon completed his legal education, was called to the bar,

and at the age of 26 was elected to Parliament.

☺He made little progress during Elizabeth’s reign.

☺He received a knighthood(骑士) during JamesⅠ reign.


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☺After a few years he obtained an important office of states,

and between 1612 and 1621 he rose through a succession of

stages until he became Lord High Chancellor(大法官兼上院

议长), the head of the legal system of England, and made peer

with the titles of Baron Verulam and Viscount St Albans(弗鲁

兰姆男爵及圣阿尔贝子爵).

☺He was an admirable judge, but in the course of his raising

he have made enemies who finally combined to bring against

him charge of bribery and the betrayal of justice. Bacon's guilt

lay less in financial corruption than in great readiness to allow

court influence to affect a legal decision but he was convicted,

deprived of his offices, and banished form London.


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☺Five years later, in 1626, he died. states,

☺The remaining of his life were spent in literary and philoso-

-phical work.

☺Pope(蒲柏) describe him as “the wisest, brightest, meanest

of mankind”.


The main literary works1
states, . The Main Literary Works

Bacon’s works may be divided into three classes:

☺the philosophical work

Advancement of Learning(学术进展)—publish in English in

1605

Novum Organum(新工具)—publish in Latin in 1620

De Augmentis(大西洋)—publish in Latin in 1623

☺the professional work—the largest and most important

Maxims of the Law(法律箴言)

Reading on the Statute of Uses(谈使用法则)


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☺the literary work states,

Essays(随笔)—the most important one

A. time

(1) Tens of these he published in 1597

(2) They are reissued and extended in 1612 and again in 1625.

B. content—they deal with a great various subjects

(1) Some quite general like those Of Truth (论真理)and Of

Death (论死亡).

(2) Some on questions of individual behavior like Of Revenge

(论报复)and Of Friendship(论友谊)

(3) Many on problem of statesmanship like Of the True Great-

-ness of Kingdoms and Estates(论治国之道)


Commentary of essays
states, . Commentary Of Essays

The essays of Bacon are so highly esteemed that the critics

Hallam(哈莱姆) declares it would be “derogatory to a man of

the slightest claims to polite letters” to be unacquainted with

them. His first venture was tiny volume called Essays, Religi-

-ous Meditations, Places Persuasion and Dissuasion(随笔,宗

教思考、说服与讨论). This was modeled upon French work

by Montaigne(蒙田Essais, 1580) and was considered of small

consequences by the authors. As times went on, his ambitious

works were overlooked in favor of his essays, so he paid more

attention to the latter, revising and enlarging his work until the

final edition of 58 essays appeared in 1625. Then it was Bacon


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wrote, states, “I do publish my Essays, which of all my works have

been most current;for that, as it seems, they come home to

men’s business and bosoms.” If one must choose out of such a

storehouse, we would suggest Studies (论读书), Goodness (论

善良), Riches(论财富) , Atheism (论无神论),Unity in Religion

(论宗教合一), Adversity (论逆境), Friendship (论友谊), and

Great Place(伟大的复兴) as introduction to Bacon’s worldly-

-wise philosophy.


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