chapter 20 sonet sdh synchronous optical network synchronous digital hierarchy n.
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Chapter 20 SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Network /Synchronous Digital Hierarchy). SONET Developed by ANSI. Set of standards to take advantage of the high-speed digital transmission capability of fiber optic It is a synchronous network (a single clock is used to handle the synchronization)

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sonet developed by ansi
SONET Developed by ANSI
  • Set of standards to take advantage of the high-speed digital transmission capability of fiber optic
  • It is a synchronous network
    • (a single clock is used to handle the synchronization)
  • Employed by telephone companies and common carriers.
  • It’s transmission speeds range from 51 Mbps to multiple Gigabits per second.
sdh synchronous digital hierarchy
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)
  • The European counterpart to SONET
  • Developed by ITU-T
synchronous transport signals sts
Synchronous Transport Signals(STS)
  • SONET specification:
    • Defines a hierarchy of standardized of 10 signaling levels. (STS-1 through STS-192)
    • Each signaling level supports a certain data rate.
    • The physical link specifications are referred by optical carriers (OCs)
observations
Observations
  • Multiple STS-1 signals can be multiplexed to form STS-n signal
  • The lowest rate for SDH is 155.52 Mbps.
    • The lowest-rate signal to accommodate an ITU-T level 4 signal (139.264 Mbps)
      • The difference in capacity is needed for overhead of the optical system.
sonet devices
SONET Devices
  • STS Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
  • Regenerator (repeater)
  • Add/Drop Multiplexer
different levels of sonet connections sections lines and path
Different levels of SONET Connections (Sections, Lines,and Path)
  • Section:
    • An optical link connecting two neighbors
  • Line:
    • The portion of the network between two multiplexers
  • Path:
    • An end-to-end portion of the network between two STS Multiplexers
sonet layers
SONET Layers

SONET defines four layers:

  • Photonic layer:
  • Section layer: It provides framing, scrambling, and error control. Also responsible for moving the signal across a physical section.
  • Line layer: Responsible for moving the signal across a physical line. Multiplexers provide these functions.
  • Path layer: Responsible for moving the signal from its optical source to its optical destination.
frame format
Frame Format
  • STS-1 frame is the basic building block for SONET.
    • Frame size is 810 octets transmitted every 125 sec. (51.84 Mbps)
    • Logically can be viewed as a matrix of 9 rows and 90 columns.
    • Transmitted one row at a time from left to right and from top to bottom.
    • First three columns are used for overhead.
slide15

STS-1

Overhead

sonet applications
SONET Applications
  • Designed to provide backbone for WANs
  • Can replace T-1 and T-3 lines
  • Can be a carrier for ISDN and B-ISDN
  • Can be a carrier for ATM cells
  • Can support bandwidth on demand