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Chapter 4 Network Layer

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  1. Chapter 4Network Layer Network Layer

  2. Chapter 4: network layer chapter goals: • understand principles behind network layer services: • network layer service models • forwarding versus routing • how a router works • routing (path selection) • instantiation, implementation in the Internet Network Layer

  3. transport segment from sending to receiving host on sending side encapsulates segments into datagrams on receiving side, delivers segments to transport layer network layer protocols in everyhost, router router examines header fields in all IP datagrams passing through it network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical Network layer Network Layer

  4. Two key network-layer functions analogy: • routing: process of planning trip from source to dest • forwarding: process of getting through single interchange • forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output • routing: determine route taken by packets from source to dest. • routing algorithms Network Layer

  5. routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link routing algorithm determines end-end-path through network forwarding table determines local forwarding at this router 0100 0101 0111 1001 3 2 2 1 value in arriving packet’s header 1 0111 2 3 Interplay between routing and forwarding Network Layer

  6. no call setup at network layer routers: no state about end-to-end connections no network-level concept of “connection” packets forwarded using destination host address application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical Datagram networks 1. send datagrams 2. receive datagrams Network Layer

  7. 4 billion IP addresses, so rather than list individual destination address list range of addresses (aggregate table entries) 1 3 2 Datagram forwarding table routing algorithm local forwarding table dest address output link address-range 1 address-range 2 address-range 3 address-range 4 3 2 2 1 IP destination address in arriving packet’s header Network Layer

  8. Datagram forwarding table Destination Address Range 11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000 through 11001000 00010111 00010111 11111111 11001000 00010111 00011000 00000000 through 11001000 00010111 00011000 11111111 11001000 00010111 00011001 00000000 through 11001000 00010111 00011111 11111111 otherwise Link Interface 0 1 2 3 Q: but what happens if ranges don’t divide up so nicely? Network Layer

  9. Longest prefix matching longest prefix matching when looking for forwarding table entry for given destination address, use longest address prefix that matches destination address. Link interface 0 1 2 3 Destination Address Range 11001000 00010111 00010*** ********* 11001000 00010111 00011000 ********* 11001000 00010111 00011*** ********* otherwise examples: which interface? DA: 11001000 00010111 00010110 10100001 which interface? DA: 11001000 00010111 00011000 10101010 Network Layer

  10. host, router network layer functions: IP protocol • addressing conventions • datagram format • packet handling conventions forwarding table The Internet network layer transport layer: TCP, UDP routing protocols • path selection • RIP, OSPF, BGP network layer ICMP protocol • error reporting • router “signaling” link layer physical layer Network Layer

  11. IP protocol version number 32 bits total datagram length (bytes) header length (bytes) type of service head. len ver length for fragmentation/ reassembly fragment offset “type” of data flgs 16-bit identifier max number remaining hops (decremented at each router) upper layer time to live header checksum 32 bit source IP address 32 bit destination IP address upper layer protocol to deliver payload to e.g. timestamp, record route taken, specify list of routers to visit. options (if any) data (variable length, typically a TCP or UDP segment) IP datagram format how much overhead? • 20 bytes of TCP • 20 bytes of IP • = 40 bytes + app layer overhead Network Layer

  12. network links have MTU (max.transfer size) - largest possible link-level frame different link types, different MTUs large IP datagram divided (“fragmented”) within net one datagram becomes several datagrams “reassembled” only at final destination IP header bits used to identify, order related fragments … … reassembly IP fragmentation, reassembly fragmentation: in: one large datagram out: 3 smaller datagrams Network Layer

  13. length =1500 length =1500 length =4000 length =1040 ID =x ID =x ID =x ID =x fragflag =0 fragflag =1 fragflag =1 fragflag =0 offset =0 offset =0 offset =370 offset =185 one large datagram becomes several smaller datagrams IP fragmentation, reassembly example: • 4000 byte datagram • MTU = 1500 bytes 1480 bytes in data field offset = 1480/8 Network Layer

  14. IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface interface: connection between host/router and physical link routers typically have multiple interfaces host typically has one active interface (e.g., wired Ethernet, wireless 802.11) one IP address associated with each interface 223.1.1.2 223.1.3.27 IP addressing: introduction 223.1.1.1 223.1.2.1 223.1.1.4 223.1.2.9 223.1.1.3 223.1.2.2 223.1.3.2 223.1.3.1 223.1.1.1 = 11011111 00000001 00000001 00000001 223 1 1 1 Network Layer

  15. Q: how are interfaces actually connected? A: we’ll learn about that in chapter 5, 6. 223.1.1.2 223.1.3.27 IP addressing: introduction 223.1.1.1 223.1.2.1 223.1.1.4 223.1.2.9 223.1.1.3 223.1.2.2 A: wired Ethernet interfaces connected by Ethernet switches 223.1.3.2 223.1.3.1 For now: don’t need to worry about how one interface is connected to another (with no intervening router) A: wireless WiFi interfaces connected by WiFi base station Network Layer

  16. IP address: subnet part - high order bits host part - low order bits what’s a subnet ? device interfaces with same subnet part of IP address can physically reach each other without intervening router subnet Subnets 223.1.1.1 223.1.2.1 223.1.1.2 223.1.1.4 223.1.2.9 223.1.2.2 223.1.3.27 223.1.1.3 223.1.3.2 223.1.3.1 network consisting of 3 subnets Network Layer

  17. recipe to determine the subnets, detach each interface from its host or router, creating islands of isolated networks each isolated network is called a subnet 223.1.1.0/24 223.1.2.0/24 223.1.1.1 223.1.2.1 223.1.1.2 223.1.1.4 223.1.2.9 223.1.2.2 223.1.3.27 223.1.1.3 223.1.3.2 223.1.3.1 223.1.3.0/24 subnet Subnets subnet mask: /24 Network Layer

  18. how many? Subnets 223.1.1.2 223.1.1.1 223.1.1.4 223.1.1.3 223.1.7.0 223.1.9.2 223.1.9.1 223.1.7.1 223.1.8.1 223.1.8.0 223.1.2.6 223.1.3.27 223.1.2.1 223.1.2.2 223.1.3.1 223.1.3.2 Network Layer

  19. IP addressing: CIDR CIDR:Classless InterDomain Routing • subnet portion of address of arbitrary length • address format: a.b.c.d/x, where x is # bits in subnet portion of address host part subnet part 11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000 200.23.16.0/23 Network Layer

  20. IP addresses: how to get one? Q: how does network get subnet part of IP addr? A: gets allocated portion of its provider ISP’s address space ISP's block 11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000 200.23.16.0/20 Organization 0 11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000 200.23.16.0/23 Organization 1 11001000 00010111 00010010 00000000 200.23.18.0/23 Organization 2 11001000 00010111 00010100 00000000 200.23.20.0/23 ... ….. …. …. Organization 7 11001000 00010111 00011110 00000000 200.23.30.0/23 Network Layer

  21. 200.23.16.0/23 200.23.18.0/23 200.23.30.0/23 200.23.20.0/23 . . . . . . Hierarchical addressing: route aggregation hierarchical addressing allows efficient advertisement of routing information: Organization 0 Organization 1 “Send me anything with addresses beginning 200.23.16.0/20” Organization 2 Fly-By-Night-ISP Internet Organization 7 “Send me anything with addresses beginning 199.31.0.0/16” ISPs-R-Us Network Layer

  22. 200.23.16.0/23 200.23.18.0/23 200.23.30.0/23 200.23.20.0/23 . . . . . . Hierarchical addressing: more specific routes ISPs-R-Us has a more specific route to Organization 1 Organization 0 “Send me anything with addresses beginning 200.23.16.0/20” Organization 2 Fly-By-Night-ISP Internet Organization 7 “Send me anything with addresses beginning 199.31.0.0/16 or 200.23.18.0/23” ISPs-R-Us Organization 1 Network Layer

  23. IP addressing: how to get a block? Q: how does an ISP get block of addresses? A:ICANN: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers http://www.icann.org/ • allocates addresses • manages DNS • assigns domain names, resolves disputes Network Layer

  24. IP addresses: how to get one? Q: How does a host get IP address? • hard-coded by system admin in a file • Windows: control-panel->network->configuration->tcp/ip->properties • UNIX: /etc/rc.config • DHCP:Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: dynamically get address from as server • “plug-and-play” Network Layer

  25. DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol goal: allow host to dynamically obtain its IP address from network server when it joins network • can renew its lease on address in use • allows reuse of addresses (only hold address while connected/“on”) • support for mobile users who want to join network (more shortly) DHCP overview: • host broadcasts “DHCP discover” msg [optional] • DHCP server responds with “DHCP offer” msg [optional] • host requests IP address: “DHCP request” msg • DHCP server sends address: “DHCP ack” msg Network Layer

  26. DHCP client-server scenario DHCP server 223.1.1.0/24 223.1.2.1 223.1.1.1 223.1.1.2 arriving DHCP client needs address in this network 223.1.1.4 223.1.2.9 223.1.2.2 223.1.3.27 223.1.1.3 223.1.2.0/24 223.1.3.2 223.1.3.1 223.1.3.0/24 Network Layer

  27. DHCP discover src : 0.0.0.0, 68 dest.: 255.255.255.255,67 yiaddr: 0.0.0.0 transaction ID: 654 DHCP client-server scenario DHCP server: 223.1.2.5 arriving client DHCP offer src: 223.1.2.5, 67 dest: 255.255.255.255, 68 yiaddrr: 223.1.2.4 transaction ID: 654 lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP request src: 0.0.0.0, 68 dest:: 255.255.255.255, 67 yiaddrr: 223.1.2.4 transaction ID: 655 lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP ACK src: 223.1.2.5, 67 dest: 255.255.255.255, 68 yiaddrr: 223.1.2.4 transaction ID: 655 lifetime: 3600 secs Network Layer

  28. DHCP: more than IP addresses DHCP returns: • IP address • address of first-hop router for client • name and IP address of DNS sever • network mask (indicating network versus host portion of address) Network Layer

  29. DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP: example • connecting laptop needs its IP address, addr of first-hop router, addr of DNS server: use DHCP • DHCP request encapsulated in UDP, encapsulated in IP, encapsulated in 802.3 Ethernet 168.1.1.1 • Ethernet frame broadcast (dest: FFFFFFFFFFFF) on LAN, received at router running DHCP server router with DHCP server built into router • Ethernet demuxed to IP demuxed, UDP demuxed to DHCP Network Layer

  30. DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP: example • DCP server formulates DHCP ACK containing client’s IP address, IP address of first-hop router for client, name & IP address of DNS server • encapsulation of DHCP server, frame forwarded to client, demuxing up to DHCP at client router with DHCP server built into router • client now knows its IP address, name and IP address of DSN server, IP address of its first-hop router Network Layer

  31. NAT: network address translation rest of Internet local network (e.g., home network) 10.0.0/24 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.4 10.0.0.2 138.76.29.7 10.0.0.3 datagrams with source or destination in this network have 10.0.0/24 address for source, destination (as usual) alldatagrams leaving local network have same single source NAT IP address: 138.76.29.7,different source port numbers Network Layer

  32. NAT: network address translation motivation: local network uses just one IP address as far as outside world is concerned: • range of addresses not needed from ISP: just one IP address for all devices • can change addresses of devices in local network without notifying outside world • can change ISP without changing addresses of devices in local network • devices inside local net not explicitly addressable, visible by outside world (a security plus) Network Layer

  33. NAT: network address translation implementation: NAT router must: • outgoing datagrams:replace (source IP address, port #) of every outgoing datagram to (NAT IP address, new port #) . . . remote clients/servers will respond using (NAT IP address, new port #) as destination addr • remember (in NAT translation table)every (source IP address, port #) to (NAT IP address, new port #) translation pair • incoming datagrams:replace (NAT IP address, new port #) in dest fields of every incoming datagram with corresponding (source IP address, port #) stored in NAT table Network Layer

  34. 3 1 2 4 S: 10.0.0.1, 3345 D: 128.119.40.186, 80 S: 138.76.29.7, 5001 D: 128.119.40.186, 80 1:host 10.0.0.1 sends datagram to 128.119.40.186, 80 2:NAT router changes datagram source addr from 10.0.0.1, 3345 to 138.76.29.7, 5001, updates table S: 128.119.40.186, 80 D: 10.0.0.1, 3345 S: 128.119.40.186, 80 D: 138.76.29.7, 5001 NAT: network address translation NAT translation table WAN side addr LAN side addr 138.76.29.7, 5001 10.0.0.1, 3345 …… …… 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.4 10.0.0.2 138.76.29.7 10.0.0.3 4:NAT router changes datagram dest addr from 138.76.29.7, 5001 to 10.0.0.1, 3345 3:reply arrives dest. address: 138.76.29.7, 5001 Network Layer

  35. NAT: network address translation • 16-bit port-number field: • 60,000 simultaneous connections with a single LAN-side address! • NAT is controversial: • routers should only process up to layer 3 • violates end-to-end argument • NAT possibility must be taken into account by app designers, e.g., P2P applications • address shortage should instead be solved by IPv6 Network Layer

  36. used by hosts & routers to communicate network-level information error reporting: unreachable host, network, port, protocol echo request/reply (used by ping) network-layer “above” IP: ICMP msgs carried in IP datagrams ICMP message: type, code plus first 8 bytes of IP datagram causing error ICMP: internet control message protocol TypeCodedescription 0 0 echo reply (ping) 3 0 dest. network unreachable 3 1 dest host unreachable 3 2 dest protocol unreachable 3 3 dest port unreachable 3 6 dest network unknown 3 7 dest host unknown 4 0 source quench (congestion control - not used) 8 0 echo request (ping) 9 0 route advertisement 10 0 router discovery 11 0 TTL expired 12 0 bad IP header Network Layer

  37. source sends series of UDP segments to dest first set has TTL =1 second set has TTL=2, etc. unlikely port number when nth set of datagrams arrives to nth router: router discards datagrams and sends source ICMP messages (type 11, code 0) ICMP messages includes name of router & IP address when ICMP messages arrives, source records RTTs Traceroute and ICMP stopping criteria: • UDP segment eventually arrives at destination host • destination returns ICMP “port unreachable” message (type 3, code 3) • source stops 3 probes 3 probes 3 probes Network Layer

  38. IPv6: motivation • initial motivation:32-bit address space soon to be completely allocated. • additional motivation: • header format helps speed processing/forwarding • header changes to facilitate QoS IPv6 datagram format: • fixed-length 40 byte header • no fragmentation allowed Network Layer

  39. IPv6 datagram format priority: identify priority among datagrams in flow flow Label: identify datagrams in same “flow.” (concept of“flow” not well defined). next header: identify upper layer protocol for data pri ver flow label hop limit payload len next hdr source address (128 bits) destination address (128 bits) data 32 bits Network Layer

  40. Other changes from IPv4 • checksum:removed entirely to reduce processing time at each hop • options: allowed, but outside of header, indicated by “Next Header” field • ICMPv6: new version of ICMP • additional message types, e.g. “Packet Too Big” • multicast group management functions Network Layer

  41. IPv6 header fields IPv6 source dest addr UDP/TCP payload IPv4 payload Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 • not all routers can be upgraded simultaneously • no “flag days” • how will network operate with mixed IPv4 and IPv6 routers? • tunneling: IPv6 datagram carried as payload in IPv4 datagram among IPv4 routers IPv4 header fields IPv4 source, dest addr IPv6 datagram IPv4 datagram Network Layer

  42. IPv4 tunnel connecting IPv6 routers logical view: A A E E B B F F IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 Tunneling C D physical view: IPv4 IPv4 Network Layer

  43. Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data IPv4 tunnel connecting IPv6 routers logical view: A A E E B B F F IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 src:B dest: E src:B dest: E flow: X src: A dest: F data flow: X src: A dest: F data A-to-B: IPv6 E-to-F: IPv6 B-to-C: IPv6 inside IPv4 B-to-C: IPv6 inside IPv4 Tunneling C D physical view: IPv4 IPv4 Network Layer

  44. routing algorithm determines end-end-path through network forwarding table determines local forwarding at this router 1 3 2 Interplay between routing, forwarding routing algorithm local forwarding table dest address output link address-range 1 address-range 2 address-range 3 address-range 4 3 2 2 1 IP destination address in arriving packet’s header Network Layer

  45. 5 3 5 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 z x w u v y Graph abstraction graph: G = (N,E) N = set of routers = { u, v, w, x, y, z } E = set of links ={ (u,v), (u,x), (v,x), (v,w), (x,w), (x,y), (w,y), (w,z), (y,z) } aside: graph abstraction is useful in other network contexts, e.g., P2P, where N is set of peers and E is set of TCP connections Network Layer

  46. 5 3 5 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 z x w u v y Graph abstraction: costs c(x,x’) = cost of link (x,x’) e.g., c(w,z) = 5 cost could always be 1, or inversely related to bandwidth, or inversely related to congestion cost of path (x1, x2, x3,…, xp) = c(x1,x2) + c(x2,x3) + … + c(xp-1,xp) key question: what is the least-cost path between u and z ? routing algorithm: algorithm that finds that least cost path Network Layer

  47. Q: global or decentralized information? global: all routers have complete topology, link cost info “link state” algorithms decentralized: router knows physically-connected neighbors, link costs to neighbors iterative process of computation, exchange of info with neighbors “distance vector” algorithms Q: static or dynamic? static: routes change slowly over time dynamic: routes change more quickly periodic update in response to link cost changes Routing algorithm classification Network Layer

  48. Dijkstra’s algorithm net topology, link costs known to all nodes accomplished via “link state broadcast” all nodes have same info computes least cost paths from one node (‘source”) to all other nodes gives forwarding table for that node iterative: after k iterations, know least cost path to k destinations A Link-State Routing Algorithm Network Layer

  49. notation: • c(x,y): link cost from node x to y; = ∞ if not direct neighbors • D(v): current value of cost of path from source to dest. v • p(v): predecessor node along path from source to v • N': set of nodes whose least cost path definitively known Dijsktra’s Algorithm 1 Initialization: 2 N' = {u} 3 for all nodes v 4 if v adjacent to u 5 then D(v) = c(u,v) 6 else D(v) = ∞ 7 8 Loop 9 find w not in N' such that D(w) is a minimum 10 add w to N' 11 update D(v) for all v adjacent to w and not in N' : 12 D(v) = min( D(v), D(w) + c(w,v) ) 13 /* new cost to v is either old cost to v or known 14 shortest path cost to w plus cost from w to v */ 15 until all nodes in N' Network Layer

  50. Dijkstra’s algorithm: example 9 11,w 14,x 11,w ∞ ∞ ∞ 3,u 5,u 5,u 6,w 6,w 7,u 7 5 4 8 3 w u x v y z 2 3 4 7 10,v 14,x D(v) p(v) D(w) p(w) D(x) p(x) D(y) p(y) D(z) p(z) Step N' u 0 uw 1 uwx 2 uwxv 3 uwxvy 4 12,y uwxvyz 5 notes: • construct shortest path tree by tracing predecessor nodes • ties can exist (can be broken arbitrarily) Network Layer