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Fungi

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  1. Fungi Chapter 31

  2. Plantae Fungi Animalia • Protista Monera

  3. Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species • Uses: • medicine • food • Ecological value: • major decomposers • symbiotic relationships (N2 fixers) • Problems: • some strains are deadly • athletes foot • destroy library books • destroy crops

  4. Some fungi are pathogens • About 30% of the 100,000 known species of fungi are parasites, mostly on or in plants. • American elms: Dutch Elm Disease • American chestnut: • chestnut blight Was once one of America's most dominant trees

  5. Some fungi are pathogens • Other fungi, such as rusts and ergots, infect grain crops, causing tremendous economic losses each year.

  6. Some fungi are pathogens • Curse of the Mummy

  7. Some fungi are persistant Athletes Foot

  8. Fungi as Decomposers

  9. Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, absorptive Mostly multicellular (except few, e.g. yeast) Heterotrophic (decomposers & parasitic) Mycelium (body of hyphae)

  10. Kingdom Fungi • Firm cell walls (generally of “chitin”) • “Spores” as reproductive bodies • Unique chromosomes and nuclei • Includes molds, yeasts, rusts, and mushrooms

  11. hyphae - the vegetative bodies of most fungi, constructed of tiny filaments • mycelium -an interwoven mat of hyphae

  12. Human hair Fungal hypha

  13. Septate hypha: • multicellular • walls divided by septa • Ceonocytic hypha: • continuous cytoplasm mass • multinucleate • no septa

  14. Haustoria: • Modified hyphae found in parasitic fungi • Function: absorb nutrients from host • Some fungi even have hyphae adapted for preying on animals.

  15. Kingdom Fungi Division Chytridiomycota Division Ascomycota Division Glomeromycota Division Basidiomycota Division Zygomycota Division Deuteromycota

  16. Hyphae 25 µm Chytrids (1,000 species) Fungus-like protist Fig. 31-11 Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Fungal hypha Glomeromycetes (160 species) Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) ? Deuteromycota

  17. The five fungal phyla can be distinguished by their reproductive features.

  18. Division Chytridiomycota • mainly aquatic. • Some are saprobes, while others parasitize protists, plants, and animals. • chitinous cell wall • flagellated zoospores • the most primitive fungi

  19. Division Zygomycota “Zygote fungi”(bread molds) Zygote = “mated” hyphal strands Live in soil, water Some are parasites 600 species

  20. Mated hyphal strands

  21. The zygosporangia are resistant to freezing and drying. • When conditions improve, the zygosporangia release haploid spores that colonize new substrates. • Pilobolus aiming its spores.

  22. The zygomycete Rhizopus can reproduce either asexually or sexually.

  23. PHYLUMGLOMEROMYCOTA • Previously With Zygomycota • Small Monophyletic Clade • Endomycorrhizae – Arbuscular Mycorrhizae • Produce branching Arbuscules

  24. Fig. 31-15 2.5 µm

  25. Plant-Fungal Relationships Mycorrhizae (“fungus roots”) 90% of tree species have this association Very important to absorption of water and nutrients

  26. Soil surface Plant roots Mycorrhizae Increases s.a. for absorption

  27. Division Ascomycota “Sac fungi”(truffles, yeast) Beer > 6,000 years Wine > 8,000 years Lichens Decomposers, pathogens “yeast” describes a form of fungi (i.e., non-hyphal) 60,000 species

  28. Division Ascomycota Scarlet cup Morchella truffles

  29. Division Ascomycota Close up of cheese showing blue-green mycelium of Penicillium roqueforti. Roquefort cheese

  30. Yeast

  31. LICHENS Crusrose Fruticose Foliose

  32. Lichen

  33. Lichen Anatomy

  34. Ascomycetes are characterized by an extensive heterokaryotic stage during the formation of ascocarps.

  35. Division Basidiomycota “Club fungi”(mushrooms) Club-shaped reproductive structure Food Plant diseases 25,000 species

  36. Fairy Ring

  37. The life cycle of a club fungus usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium.

  38. PHYLUM DEUTEROMYCOTA No Longer Exist!! • 22,000 species. • No known sexual stage. • Saprophytic, parasitic and predatory. • Many produce conidia. • Most classified as Ascomycota. • Fusarium wilt of tomato, potato and cotton. • Athletes foot, ring worm

  39. Division Deuteromycota • “Imperfect fungi”(penicillin) • Unrelated group • Asexual • No info on sexual cycle 25,000 species

  40. Penicillin Woops… now Ascomycota

  41. Candida albicans “yeast infection”

  42. Botrytis: “Noble Rot”