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North Africa and Southwest Asia Today By: Mr. Hunter
Points to Ponder • 1. Who took over the Ottoman empire after its defeat? • 2. What is a mandate?
Points to ponder • 1. Great Britain and France • 2. a country placed under another power’s control by international agreement *The European powers promised to give their mandates independence by a certain date.
United Nations • How did the United Nations attempt to solve the conflict between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine? Were they successful?
United Nations Attempt • The UN divided Palestine into two parts- one for the Jews and one for the Arabs. It was not successful since it spurred the Arab-Isreli wars.
UN • How do you think the UN could have resolved this conflict in a better way?
Palestinian Refugees • 700,000 Arabs had to leave their homes
Arab-Isreli Wars • Israel won the third and fourth Arab-Isreli wars and territory switched back and forth between the two countries. • Attempts at peace have been made, but a peaceful solution has not been reached.
What causes this conflict between Israel and Arab countries? • Religious differences • Conflict between ethnic groups • Nationalism • Fundamentalism
Religious Differences Example: Sunnis and Shi’ites Shi’ites are MUCH more willing to accept religious leaders as political leaders. This has caused tension between Iraq and Iran.
Ethnic Groups Example: Iraqis are descendants of Arabs from the Arabian peninsula. Most Iranians are Persians, with a different language and history.
Nationalism Kurds Want a country of their own
Oil • Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, and Iraq produce nearly half of the world’s oil! • Oil is such a valuable resource, OPEC was formed. How does it influence the cost of oil? • How did OPEC inflate the price of gasoline in 1973?
Supply and demand • Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers. The quantity demanded is the amount of a product people are willing to buy at a certain price; the relationship between price and quantity demanded is known as the demand relationship
Supply and Demand • Supply represents how much the market can offer.
Example • Imagine that a special edition CD of your favorite band is released for $20. Because the record company's previous analysis showed that consumers will not demand CDs at a price higher than $20, only ten CDs were released because the opportunity cost is too high for suppliers to produce more. If, however, the ten CDs are demanded by 20 people, the price will subsequently rise because, according to the demand relationship, as demand increases, so does the price. Consequently, the rise in price should prompt more CDs to be supplied as the supply relationship shows that the higher the price, the higher the quantity supplied.
Oil • Using the data from the table, create a line graph. • Create five math problems to accompany your line graph.
How does Islam influence the culture of the region? • Muslims pray five times a day.
Why do Muslims face a certain direction when they pray? • They are facing Kaaba (the House of God) at Mecca, the holiest of the three cities of Islam. • Muslims face different directions, depending on where they are in relation to Mecca.
How does Islam influence the culture of the region? • Radio stations air readings from the Qur’ an. • Muslims go on a haji or pilgrimage to Mecca, once in a lifetime.
How does Islam influence the culture of the region? • During the ninth month of the Islamic year, called Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset with a huge feast at the end of the month.
Ramadan • Would you have the dedication to fast for an entire month?
Westernization • Some people believe that westernization (eating at fast-food restaurants and making advances in businesses and sciences) will give them a higher standards of living.
Women wear many hats. • Israel, Jordan, Egypt: Women are educated and work in business and government. • Saudi Arabia: Women cannot attend gatherings with men, drive cars, and have more than one husband. Few women work outside the home!
Women wear many hats. • Some women are forced to wear chadors.
Egypt • 1. Why was the Suez Canal important? How did it come under British control?
Egypt • Egypt’s government went through drastic change from the 1920s to the 1950s. • It became an independent monarchy in 1922 and became a republic in 1953.
Important People • Ismail Pasha • King Fuad • King Farouk • Gamal Nassar
Aswan High Dam • How is this structure an example of a tradeoff?
Conditions • 1. Describe the conditions of rights for women in modern Egypt. • 2. How has Egypt striven to create peaceful solutions in world conflicts? • 3. Describe the Muslim Brotherhood.
Rights of Women • Active in the movement for independence • Fewer rights than men in marriage • 1956- gained the right to vote and run for office • 2000- women gained rights for divorce
Egypt strives for peace. • Egypt became the first Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel. • Led the region in opposing Iraq’s 1990 invasion of Kuwait. • Tried to settle arguments between Iraq and UN
Muslim Brotherhood • Egypt should be governed solely by Islamic law, and not try to make peace with other countries. • Al-Banna, the leader, based his ideas that Islam was not only a religious observance, but a comprehensive way of life
Muslim Brotherhood • "Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. Qur'an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope."—Muslim Brotherhood
Geography • 1. What type of land covers much of Egypt? • 2. What is Egypt’s most important primary product and agricultural export? • 3. How would you describe the life of the fellahin?
Cairo • Create a venn diagram comparing Cairo, Egypt to New York City.
Cairo • Cairo once had gardens, trees, and birds, but now it is overpopulated and polluted. • Poor Cairenes work in factories or small shops and live in cemeteries, on roofs, or in poorly built apartment buildings.
Cairo • Wealthier Cairenes work as doctors, lawyers, teachers (YAY!), factory managers and government officials.
Egypt has been a cultural leader. • Find support for this statement.
Egypt has been a cultural leader • Egypt opened the first modern school for girls in the Arab world in 1829. • In Egypt, all children must attend school. • There was a strong feminist movement in Egypt. • The country supports media and entertainment in print and broadcast.
Israel • Israel’s current problems are rooted in a long and complicated history.
1. What was Zionism? • 2. Describe the kinds of communities early Jewish settlers established in Palestine. • 3. Why is drop irrigation an important technique? • 4. What is the population and ethnic makeup of Israel? • 5. Describe life as a Palestinian Arab in Israel. • 6. What opportunities do women have in Israel? • 7. What are the Jewish High Holy Days? Describe one of them in detail. • 8. How do Orthodox Jews differ from secular Jews? • 9. What was the Law of Return? What were its postive and negative impacts on Israeli society?
Zionism • Zionism was a Jewish movement to return to the homeland of Palestine, which Jews called Zion
Kibbutz • A kibbutz is a cooperative farming villages called kibbutzim established by early Jewish settlers in Palestine.