Propaganda, Bias, and advertising The world is not always black and white
At the end of this unit… • The student should be able to distinguish the difference between propaganda, bias, and advertising. • Determine bias in news articles from differing sources. • Determine propaganda as used in World War II and after and its relation to the novel 1984.
What is the difference? • Propaganda • Propaganda Strategies • Bias • Advertising
Post Program Questions • 1. What are some ways to recognize propaganda? • 2. How do bias and propaganda differ? • 3. Give an example of propaganda used for good. • 4. How do advertisers personalize ads?
Activity 1 CONTENT ANALYSIS • Most advertising contains propaganda. • In groups of 3, Tally the number of ads and categorize them by the propaganda method used: Bandwagon, Card stacking, Plain Folks, Glittering Generalities, or Other. • Compare and discuss the results. What were the most common strategies? Why? How are stereotypes of gender and race used in the ads? Are there any clear connections between the advertisements and the editorial content of the magazine? • Next, create a poster demonstrating each of the propaganda techniques with descriptions and arrows pointing out the examples
Uses of propaganda • Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare as well. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the citizenry just as surely as military weapons engaged the enemy.
ACTIVITY 2POSTER PROPAGANDA • During World War II, persuading the public to support the war became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing of bullets and planes. The government launched an aggressive propaganda campaign to galvanize public support.
Public relations specialists advised the U.S. Government that the most effective war posters were the ones that appealed to the emotions. The posters shown here played on the public's fear of the enemy. The images depict Americans in imminent danger-their backs against the wall, living in the shadow of Axis domination
Concerns about national security intensify in wartime. During World War II, the Government alerted citizens to the presence of enemy spies and saboteurs lurking just below the surface of American society. "Careless talk" posters warned people that small snippets of information regarding troop movements or other logistical details would be useful to the enemy. Well-meaning citizens could easily compromise national security and soldiers` safety with careless talk.
Bias in the news • What’s the difference in bias between Democratic CNN and Republican Fox News?
Create a list of the top stories that appear on the front pages of the two papers. Compare the space devoted and the headlines for each of these stories. Some stories may move off the front page. Make note of the page number the stories move to. Select three stories that both papers have in common. • Who are the key subjects or spokespeople in the stories? • Make a comparative list of the adjectives and other descriptive words used to talk about these individuals. • Make note of any fact discrepancies between the two papers.
Based on the data collected, what observations can be made about the coverage of the story by each paper? How do these observations relate to notions of conservative versus liberal values? Is there evidence of gender or racial bias? Is the story given more prominence in one paper than another? What might this say about the different audiences each paper serves?
Works cited • http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/powers_of_persuasion_intro.html • www.googleimages.com • www.learn360.com