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Family: Dicamptodonidae. Tenebrosus Aterrimus Copei Ensatus. Synapomorphies. Sympatric with torrent salamanders and the tailed frog- live in fast-paced streams Earliest phylogenic split appears to have separated coastal species from Idaho. Extinct species show a wider range of habitat.

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family dicamptodonidae

Family: Dicamptodonidae

Tenebrosus

Aterrimus

Copei

Ensatus

synapomorphies
Synapomorphies
  • Sympatric with torrent salamanders and the tailed frog- live in fast-paced streams
  • Earliest phylogenic split appears to have separated coastal species from Idaho. Extinct species show a wider range of habitat
a possible synapomorphy
A possible synapomorphy?
  • A study between three species, Rhyacotritonolympicus, and representative species from Dicamptodon and Ambystoma compared phylogeny through physiology
  • Females of Dicamptodon have spermathecae and ventral glands, but differ in cloacal conformation from females of Ambystoma and lack the dorsal glands. Dicamptodon females have less extensive epidermal lining in the cloaca
  • Males of Dicamptodon and that of the other subject have 5 types of cloacal glands.
  • In Dicamptodon and Ambystoma vent glands were found to secret along the medial border of the cloacal orifice
  • Dicamptodon males have less extensive vent glands.
  • Results indicate Ambystoma and Dicamptodon are sister groups, and Rhyacotriton is not as closely related
  • Sever, DM. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the cloacae of salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata). VI. Ambystomatidae and dicamptodontidae. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.1052120309/abstract
tenebrosus pacific giant
Tenebrosus“Pacific Giant”
  • Smaller head and limbs, fewer teeth in the upper jaw than California Giant
  • 17-34cm SVL
  • Ground color (dirt?), dorsal and ventral is darker, coloration varies
  • Marble pattern is a finer grain

http://www.nwtrek.org/page.php?id=276

slide5

http://www.arsconsulting.org/id13.html

http://www.csuchico.edu/~dwilson/herpetology.htm

slide6

http://courses.washington.edu/vertebra/452/photos/amphib/salamander_photos.htmhttp://courses.washington.edu/vertebra/452/photos/amphib/salamander_photos.htm

range of pacific giant
Range of Pacific Giant

Overlaps the range of the Cope Salamander in SW Washington and NW Oregon

Threatened by loss of canopy and increase of silt concentration due to logging

http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Dicamptodon+tenebrosus

aterrimus idaho giant
Aterrimus“Idaho Giant”
  • Darkest of the Giants, with fine dorsal marbling and spotting
  • Head is flatten towards the front
  • Lay large clutches of unpigmented eggs (185 eggs in one study, -Peterson field guide)

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?where-taxon=Dicamptodon&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=amphibian&max=100

slide9

Inhabits Rocky Mountain steams of Montana and Idaho

  • Headwater streams from Salmon River to Coer d’Alene Drainage.

http://fieldguide.mt.gov/detail_AAAAH01030.aspx

http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/bio/amph/urodela/diat/diatdist.htm

ensatus california giant
Ensatus“California Giant”

Sometimes will climb trees to a height of 8 feet

Larvae hatch in winter, and may not transform till 2-3 summers

Voice is low-pitched rattling sound when startled

  • 6.5-17.3cm
  • Large, heavy-bodied salamander with an massive head
  • Wide coloration and marbling-tan to light reddish brown,
  • No tubercles on its bottom feet
slide11

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?enlarge=8030+3192+2807+0033http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?enlarge=8030+3192+2807+0033

  • http://natureofaman.blogspot.com/2009/10/prehistoric-trail-traffic.html
slide12
http://arssc.ucdavis.edu/species/species/salamanders.html
  • Loves cold streams
  • Found under logs, barks, rocks, or crawling in exposed damp woods in the daytime
copei copes giant
Copei“Copes Giant”
  • Rarely transforms into its terrestrial stage
  • 6.3-12cm
  • Habitat overlaps with Pacific salamander
  • Heads are rectangular shaped and Ventral colors are darker in comparison to the Pacific Salamander

http://www.surfbirds.com/blogs/mbalame/archives/2007/10/tenebrosus.html

http://www8.nos.noaa.gov/coris_glossary/index.aspx?letter=p

copei range
Copei Range

http://www.californiaherps.com/noncal/northwest/nwsalamanders/pages/d.copei.html

who am i
Who Am I ?
  • Dicamptodoncopei(Copes)
  • Dicamptodonensatus (California)
  • Dicamptodonaterrimus(Idaho)
  • Dicamptodonteneborsus(Pacific)
cited works
Cited Works
  • http://tolweb.org/Dicamptodontidae/15447
  • http://depts.washington.edu/natmap/habitats/images/pacific_giant_salamander.jpg
  • http://www.californiaherps.com/salamanders/pages/d.ensatus.html
  • http://www.californiaherps.com/noncal/northwest/nwsalamanders/pages/d.copei.html
  • http://idahoherps.pbworks.com
  • http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.1052120309/abstract