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Family and Intimate Relationships

Family and Intimate Relationships

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Family and Intimate Relationships

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  1. Family and Intimate Relationships

  2. Chapter Outline • Families in Global Perspective • Theoretical Perspectives on Families • Developing Intimate Relationships and Establishing Families • Child-Related Family Issues and Parenting • Transition and Problems in Families • Family Issues in the Future

  3. Family Structure and Characteristics • Kinshiprefers to a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption. • Family of orientation is the family into which a person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place. • Family of procreation is the family a person forms by having or adopting children.

  4. Traditional Definition of Family • A group of people who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption, live together, are an economic unit, and bear and raise children.

  5. New Definition of Family • Relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group.

  6. Definition of Family • 2010's American Family Defined • Kids React to Gay Marriage

  7. Family Structure and Characteristics • Anuclear family is composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives. • The nuclear family is the nucleus or core upon which larger family groups are built.

  8. Composition: What Is the Family? Anextended family is composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household.

  9. Composition: What Is the Family? • Monogamy • --Monogamy is a form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other. • Serial Monogamy • --Serial monogamy is when a person has several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one spouse at a time.

  10. Composition: What Is the Family? • Polygamy • --Polygamy is a form of marriage allowing an individual to have several husbands or wives simultaneously. • Polygyny • --Polygyny, a type of polygamy, is the marriage of a man to more than one woman at a time. • Polyandry • --Polyandry, a type of polygamy, is the marriage of a woman to more than one husband at the same time.

  11. The Role of Family and Social Change • Family Structures • CBC News - StatsCan includes gay families

  12. The End of Family?

  13. The Council of Dads

  14. How Much Do You Know About Trends in U.S. Family Life? • True or False? • Today, people in the United States are more inclined to get married than at any time in history.

  15. How Much Do You Know About Trends in U.S. Family Life? • False. • Census data show that the marriage rate has gone down by about one third since 1960. In 1960, there were about 73 marriages per 1,000 unmarried women age 15 and up, whereas today the rate is about 49 per 1,000.

  16. How Much Do You Know About Trends in U.S. Family Life • True or False? • Most U.S. family households are composed of a married couple with one or more children under age 18.

  17. How Much Do You Know About Trends in U.S. Family Life? • False. • Less than 25 percent of all family households are composed of married couples with one or more children under age 18.

  18. GSS National Data

  19. Household Composition: 1970 and 2000

  20. Question • The strength of the American family is declining. • Strongly agree • Agree somewhat • Unsure • Disagree somewhat • Strongly disagree

  21. Question • The strength of the American family is declining. • Strongly agree • Agree somewhat • Unsure • Disagree somewhat • Strongly disagree

  22. Marriage • Legally recognized arrangement between two or more individuals that carries certain rights and obligations. • Monogamy is the only form of marriage sanctioned by law in the United States. • Establishes a system of descent so kinship can be determined.

  23. Question • If you are currently married: • Taking things all together, how would you describe your marriage? Would you say that your marriage is: • Very happy • Pretty happy • Not too happy

  24. GSS National Data

  25. Question • A social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption is known as: • kinship. • a family. • a clan. • subculture.

  26. Answer: a • A social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption is known as kinship.

  27. Question • All things considered, how satisfied are you with your family life?

  28. A Different Kind of Family: Families Portrayed in the Media • The Family and How It's Portrayed in the Media

  29. Chapter Outline • Global View of the Family • Studying the Family • Marriage and Family • Divorce • Diverse Lifestyles • Social Policy and the Family: Reproductive Technology

  30. Patterns of Descent and Inheritance • Kinship Patterns: To Whom Are We Related • Kinship • --Kinship is the state of being related to others. • Bilateral Descent • --Both sides of a person’s family are regarded as equally important.

  31. Patterns of Descent and Inheritance • Patrilineal descent • In patrilineal descent, only the father’s relatives are important. • Trace descent through the father’s side of the family. • Matrilineal descent • In matrilineal descent, only the mother’s relatives are significant. • Trace descent through the mother’s side of the family • Women may not control property. • Bilateral descent • A system of tracing descent through both the mother’s and father’s sides of the family • Kinship Patterns: To Whom Are We Related

  32. Patterns of Descent and Inheritance • Patriarchy • When males are expected to dominate in all family decision making, that society is a patriarchy. • Authority is held by the eldest male (usually the father) • Matriarchy • When women have greater authority than men, that society is a matriarchy. • Authority is held by the eldest female (usually the mother) • Egalitarian family • A family in which spouses are regarded as equals. • Power and authority are shared by both partners. • Authority Patterns: Who Rules?

  33. Patterns of Descent and Inheritance • Residential Patterns • Patrilocal residence refers to the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the husband’s family. • Matrilocalresidence is the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the wife’s parents. • Neolocal residence is the custom of a married couple living in their own residence apart from both the husband’s and the wife’s parents.

  34. Global View of the Family Figure 12.1: Types of Family Households in the United States, 1980, 1997, and 2010

  35. Studying the Family • Functionalist View • The family serves six functions for society: • Reproduction • Protection • Socialization • Regulation of sexual behavior • Affection • Providing of social status

  36. Studying the Family • Conflict View • The conflict view believes that family reflects the inequality in wealth and power found within society. • The conflict view recognizes that historically, husbands exercised power and authority within the family. • The conflict view sees the family as an economic unit contributing to social injustice.

  37. Studying the Family • Symbolic-Interactionist View • The interactionist view focuses on the microlevel of family and other intimate relationships. • The interactionist view is interested in how individuals interact with others, whether they are cohabiting partners or long-term married couples.

  38. Studying the Family • Feminist View • Feminist theorists have urged social scientists and social agencies to rethink the notion that families in which no adult male is present are automatically a cause for concern. • Feminists stress the need to broaden family research to include not only gender, race, and social class, but human sexuality and the aging process.

  39. Marriage and Family • Courtship and Mate Selection • Aspects of Mate Selection --Endogamy: Endogamy specifies the groups within which a spouse must be found and prohibits marriage with members of other groups. --Exogamy: Exogamy requires mate selection outside certain groups, usually one’s own family or certain kin.

  40. Marriage and Family Figure 12.2: Percentage of People Aged 20 to 24 Ever Married, Selected Countries

  41. 5 or more people 4 people 3 people 2 people 1 person 1970 1980 1990 2000 Marriage and Family Households by Size: 1970 to 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000. Figure 5-2. (Internet Release) accessed at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/profile2000.html#cont.

  42. Marriage and Family • Variations in Family Life and Intimate Relationships • Racial and Ethnic Differences --The subordinate status of racial and ethnic groups profoundly affects their family life. • --Family patterns differ among racial and ethnic groups. • --Family ties can serve as an economic boost within racial and ethnic groups.

  43. Marriage and Family • Child-Rearing Patterns in Family Life • Parenthood and Grandparenthood • --One of the most important roles of parents is socialization of children. • --Recently, the United States has witnessed the extension of parenthood, as adult children continue to (or return to) live at home. This phenomenon is referred to as the “boomeranggeneration” or “full-nest syndrome.”

  44. Marriage and Family • Child-Rearing Patterns in Family Life • Adoption • --Adoption is a process that “allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood” to a new legal parent or parents. • --The largest single category of adoption in the United States is adoption by relatives. In most cases, a stepparent adopts the children of a spouse.

  45. Marriage and Family • Child-Rearing Patterns in Family Life • Dual-Income Families • --Among married people between the ages of 25 and 34, 96 percent of the men and 72 percent of the women are in the labor force.

  46. Marriage and Family • Child-Rearing Patterns in Family Life • Single-Parent Families • --A single-parent family is one in which there is only one parent present to care for the children. • In 1998, a single parent headed about: 19% of White families with children under 18 34% of Hispanic families with children 54% of African American families with children

  47. Marriage and Family Figure 12.3: Rise of One-Parent Families among Whites, African Americans, Hispanics,and Asians or Pacific Islanders in the United States

  48. Live births per 1,000 females Percent of all births 180 40 Births to unmarriedfemales (right scale) Birth rate for marriedfemales 15-44(left scale) 160 35 140 30 120 25 100 20 80 Birth rate for unmarriedfemales 15-44(left scale) 15 60 40 10 20 5 0 0 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Marriage and Family Birth Rates for Married and Unmarried Females Source: Office of the President. 2000. Economic Report of the President: Transmitted to the Congress, February 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Chart 5-3 on p. 171.

  49. Marriage and Family Births to Unmarried Women, by Country: 1980 to 1998 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table 1331 on p. 836. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/01statab/stat-ab01.html.

  50. Marriage and Family • Child-Rearing Patterns in Family Life • Stepfamilies • --The rising rates of divorce and remarriage have led to a significant increase in stepfamily relationships. • --Stepfamilies are an exceedingly complex form of family organization. • --The exact nature of these blended families has social significance for children and adults alike, and re-socialization is often required for children and adults alike.