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Prehistoric Andean States. Wilson Ch.-9 (Part 2) The Inca . Machu Pichu. The Inca ( A.D. 1200 and 1532). Ethnohistorical Background & Chronology 332 years Early Inca (A.D. 1200-1438) founding the capital city of Cuzco by Manco Capac Viracocha Inca- Supreme title “ Sapa Inca”

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prehistoric andean states

Prehistoric Andean States

Wilson Ch.-9

(Part 2)

The Inca

Machu Pichu

the inca a d 1200 and 1532
The Inca (A.D. 1200 and 1532)
  • Ethnohistorical Background & Chronology
  • 332 years
    • Early Inca (A.D. 1200-1438) founding the capital city of Cuzco by Manco Capac
      • Viracocha Inca- Supreme title “Sapa Inca”
    • Late Inca (A.D. 1438-1532)
      • Reign of Pachacuti in 1438 A.D.
      • Topa Inca- set out to conquer (from Chile to Colombia)
      • Died without naming successor- Civil War
        • Huascar (Cuzco) -Atahuallpa (Quito)
  • Largest empire in the Americas lasted only 87 years.
    • Military and political control over 1,835,000 square kilometers
the imperial inca system
The Imperial Inca System
  • Physical Environment
  • Mode of Production
    • Agriculture & Pastoralism
    • Irrigation and terracing systems
    • Citizens must provide mit’alabor
    • aqllacuna
  • Settlement Pattern
    • Cuzco population- 100,000 people by 1532
    • Public heart of the city was the Huacaypata
    • Aqllahuasi & the “chosen women”
    • Tahuantinsuy- “land of the Four Quarters”
    • Road system & the quipus(decimally knotted strings)
  • Mode of Reproduction
    • Total population: between 6 to 10 million people in 1,833,000 km2
the imperial inca system4
The Imperial Inca System
  • Domestic Economy and Social Organization
    • Children naming ceremony: Rutuchico
    • Yachahuasi
    • Rites of passage of both genders
      • Quicochico
      • Huarochico
    • Age of marriage
    • Tribute in labor
    • Marriage tax
    • Endogamous marriages in groups called ayllu
    • Local leaders were called sinchi
    • Inca was a name for the original inhabitants of Cuzco
    • Inca married his own sister to keep the blood line 100% (or 50%) pure
      • Inca royalty as direct descendants of Inti
the imperial inca system5
The Imperial Inca System
  • Political Economy
    • Origins of Inca state (A.D. 1438)
    • “split inheritance system” by Conrad
    • Inca would see conquered people as barbarians
    • Military campaigns
      • divination ritual called calpa
      • Administrator would follow the conquestincluding Quipucamayocs
      • Religious imposition and standardized dress code
the imperial inca system6
The Imperial Inca System
  • Ritual and Leadership
    • Theocracy: Sapa Inca = Inti
    • Apu (governors)
    • Coya (Queen) duality
    • Capac Hucha rituals
  • Ideology
    • Inca cosmology (fig.9.26)
    • Gender equality