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Prehistoric Andean States. Wilson Ch.-9 (Part 1) The Chavín & The Moche. Chavín Wall. The Chavín. Research by Richard Burger (1992) Physical Environment and Subsistence Settlement Pattern, Demography, & Social Organization Urabarriu phase (~1000-500 BC ) Chakinani phase (~500-400 BC )

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prehistoric andean states

Prehistoric Andean States

Wilson Ch.-9 (Part 1)

The Chavín & The Moche

Chavín Wall

the chav n
The Chavín

Research by Richard Burger (1992)

  • Physical Environment and Subsistence
  • Settlement Pattern, Demography, & Social Organization
    • Urabarriu phase (~1000-500BC)
    • Chakinani phase (~500-400BC)
    • Janabarriu phase (~400-200BC)
      • Social stratificiation- elite priests, economic, political and religious power over other sites
      • Chiefdom, not state society
      • Architecture: began during Urabarriu phase
        • U-Shaped temple
        • Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic stone heads
        • Subterranean galleries and rooms, & a labyrinthine maze
the chav n1
The Chavín
  • Political Economy
    • Gallery of the Offerings
      • Burial of a woman and 40 infant teeth
      • 9 doorways to rectangular rooms
      • Foreign pottery indicate trade (Spondylus shells- Ecuador)
    • Interpretations
      • Offerings, stored objects for ritual or redistribution?
      • Air ducts, storage functionality
      • Center for ritual and worship
  • Evidence of trade
    • Shellfish from the Pacific coast, obsidian from Quispisisa in the south, pottery vessels from the Casma Valley.
  • Social Stratification- evident in material culture
the chav n art style
The Chavín Art Style
  • Artisans or craftspeople
    • Social stratification
    • Figure 9.12
      • Zoomorphized man with a stalk of San Pedro
      • The Raimondi stela- depicting the Staff God
      • Principal deity of Old Temple: the Lanzón
the chav n2
The Chavín
  • Ritual and Leadership
    • Fusion of coastal and tropical forest elements
    • Cosmopolitan ideology
    • Hallucinogenic drugs to transform into mythic creatures
      • Figures depict dripping mucous from the nostrils
        • Similar to the Yanomamo
    • Priestly class and pilgrims
the chav n3
The Chavín
  • The Rise and Collapse of the Chavín Cult
    • Environmentally caused economic decline
    • Ideological coping mechanism
    • Deities appear in the art of the Moche & Wari cultures
      • Migration?
      • See Figure 9.13
        • Staff Deity (Bolivia)
        • Tusked Deity- Lord of Sipán
        • Chavinoid staff goddess with vagina dentata
the moche
The Moche
  • 1950s emergence of the name for the “Mochica”(Moche Valley)
  • “…best candidate for pristine multiv-alley state formation ..of South America”
  • Early Intermediate culture- AD 100-750
    • Moche I- shorter spout w/pronounced lip (-AD 400)
    • Moche II-similar spout, smaller lip (up to AD 400)
    • Moche III- flaring spout w/o lip (AD 600-750)
    • Moche IV- taller, straight-sided no lip.

Figure 9.14

the moche1
The Moche
  • Physical Environment
    • North Valley- 30,000 hectares of irrigable land
    • South Valley- 15,000 hectares of irrigable land
    • Semitropical environment
    • Fauna: parrots, toucans, pumas, iguanas, & boas.
      • Represented in the iconography of pottery vessels
the moche2
The Moche
  • Mode of production
    • Agriculture- Andean crops began by 1800B.C.
    • Coast crops: maize, roots, and tubers, legumes, fruits, cucurbits and chili peppers and cotton. (Plus seafood)
  • Settlement Pattern
    • Cerro Blanco- primary center’s site (Moche capital
      • Huaca del Sol
      • Huaca de la Luna
      • personalized columns or walls per each community who built it
      • “Fictive reciprocity”
      • Functions of the Huacas
the moche3
The Moche
  • Mode of Reproduction
    • 5,000-20,000 people earliest periods
    • Estimated population= 650,000 people
  • Domestic Economy & Social Organization
    • Wattle-and-daub quinchastructures
    • Two main rooms
    • Evidence of an artisans class
      • Specialized craft production found among states.
      • Figure 9.17 b
the moche4
The Moche

Political Economy

  • Military segmentation for resistance
  • Moche military expansion & conquest
    • HuacaTembladera
    • Centralized power
    • Similar personalized marks as in Huasca del Sol
    • Ruled by Mocheadministratos and elite
    • Moche state imposed style of pottery making, pyramid construction and administrative policies
      • Iconography depicts collection of tribute and P.O.W.s
      • Warfare, conquest and coercive control
the moche5
The Moche
  • Ritual, Leadership, and State Ideology
  • Created a powerful ideology, which permeated
  • P.O.W. were sacrificed and their blood was handed to priests as offerings.
  • Religion as means of social control
lord of sip n
Lord of Sipán
  • Tomb I- largest burial offering of prehispanic vessels ever found
  • Copper bells and backflaps- Decapitator deity
  • Burial included:
    • Hundreds of pottery vessels
    • 2 sacrificed llamas
    • A small child
    • 5 coffins, one warrior missing a his feet
    • Women, all secondary burials from elsewhere not sacrificed there
a model of moche state policy
A Model of Moche State Policy
  • Superstructure
    • Ideology
    • Ritual/leadership
  • Structure
    • Social organization
    • Political economy
  • Infrastructure
    • Mode of production
    • Settlement pattern