Created by Mr. Hemmert Robertsdale Elementary Fourth Grade Prehistoric Indians
Introduction • Anthropologists and archaeologists tell us that there were four distinct Indian cultures during the prehistoric period. • These four groups are: Paleo Indians, Archaic Indians, Woodland Indians, and the Mississippian Indians.
Important Vocabulary • Middens – garbage dumps used by Archaic Indians
Paleo Indians • The Paleo Indians moved into Alabama about 12,000 years ago while following herds of now-extinct food animals. • They were hunters and gatherers.
Paleo Indians - Foods What did the Paleo Indians eat? • Small family groups of bands of these early people cooperated to hunt game and to gather wild plant foods like berries and nuts from the forest. • The Paleo Indians hunted large prehistoric animals like mastodons and woolly mammoths.
Paleo Indians - Tools • Paleo Indians sharpened stones into spear points and scrapers. • Most of the objects that the Paleo Indians used may not be known because only stone objects can survive long enough to be found by archaeologists after hundreds of thousands of years.
The Archaic Indians • The Archaic Indians lived in Alabama 10,000 – 3,500 years ago. • The changes of the Paleo period meant that although the Archaic people were still hunters and gatherers, they made use of other resources too.
Archaic Indians - Shelter • The Archaic Indians lived near rivers during the summer. During the winter, they lived near forests.
Archaic Indians • Archaic Indians lived near rivers during the summer because they used fish and shellfish as a food source. • In the winter time, they would move to the forest to collect nuts and to hunt game.
Archaic Indians - Middens • Middens are garbage dumps used by Archaic Indians. • Archeologists have learned about what the Archaic Indians ate by studying these garbage dumps. They noticed many muscle shells.
Archaic Indians - Tools • Archaic people developed many tools that made life easier. • They used the atlatl, or a throwing stick, for hunting. • The atlatl is shaped like a jointed spear tipped with a stone weight and a hook, the atlatl allowed a hunter to aim much better and throw much farther. The atlatl improved hunting.
Woodland Indians • The Woodland period in Alabama was characterized by increasing cultural complexity and population growth and began about 1000 BC and lasted until about AD 1000. • The Woodland period started about 3,000 to 2,000 years ago.
Woodland Indians - Shelter • Woodland people tended to live in small villages, perhaps in deer-hide tents. • They stayed in one place for at least a season.
Woodland Indians – Hunting and Farming • The Woodland Indians were excellent hunters and farmers. • The Woodland Indians invented the bow and arrow which improved their hunting abilities. • With both farming and hunting, the Woodland Indians had a more dependable and healthier diet than their predecessors. As a result, their population increased.
Woodland Indians - Diet • Some of the foods that the Woodland Indians ate were: • Maize (corn), squash, and beans, nuts, wild animals, and other wild foods.
Woodland Indians - Art • The Woodland Indians were also excellent artists. Archaeologists have found numerous forms of pottery from the Woodland period. • Using clay that they eventually mixed with a temper (crushed limestone or other material that made the clay stronger), they shaped bowls and other containers by hand. • They made bowls, containers, cooking utensils, effigies, and hunting tools.
Mississippian Period • Began around A.D.700. • Relied on agriculture even more than their ancestors and celebrated during the Green Corn Festival. • They also raised livestock. • More food, the Native American population increased further.
Mississippian Period • Tribes grew larger and built permanent villages. Some had public squares and protective outer walls known as a palisade. Houses were usually made of wood and clay, a method called wattle and daub. Mississippians even built cities.
Mississippian Indians Mounds • On top of the mounds were buildings, used as houses or temples. • The mounds were also burial sites, holding shell and copper artifacts. • period was the high point of prehistoric civilization
Resources • http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0310120/hawaiians/pasthawaiians/draft.htm • http://groovyadventures.com/Nature_Wallpapers/ • http://www.padfield.com/bible-times/archaeology/ • http://www.padfield.com/bible-times/archaeology/ • http://www.adventure-crew.com/2009/06/russell-cave-national-monument/ • http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-5630 • http://rla.unc.edu/lessons/Lesson/L301/L301.htm • http://museum.state.il.us/pub/dmmweb/Images/Woodland/ Adapted PPT from: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=11&ved=0CGAQFjAK&url=http%3A%2F%2Fschools.paulding.k12.ga.us%2Fischooldistrict%2Fmedia%2Ffiles%2F2225%2Funit2%2FUnit%25202%2520Native%2520Americans.ppt&ei=uf1DUu6TC_Oy4AP2zYGIAg&usg=AFQjCNGe-KeIz9Sg4jgBb73RCzEa_B0T3w&bvm=bv.53217764,d.dmg http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&ved=0CFsQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.pcmac.org%2FSiSFiles%2FSchools%2FAL%2FBaldwinCounty%2FRobertsdaleElementary%2FUploads%2FPresentations%2FPrehistoric%2520Indians%2520-%25204%2520groups.pptx&ei=uf1DUu6TC_Oy4AP2zYGIAg&usg=AFQjCNFOdXw2vj3YO8A5g3CRegCrlPt5jg&bvm=bv.53217764,d.dmg