First Aid: Burns, Open Wounds and More
Terms to Know • Burns • Bruises • Closed Wounds • Open Wounds • Abrasions • Lacerations • Punctures • Avulsions
Burns A special kind of soft tissue injury Classified by sources: • Heat • Chemicals • Electricity • Radiation (including by the sun)
Burns: Classified by Depth • Superficial ( 1st degree) Sunburn • Partial ( 2nd degree) Hot water, stove • Full thickness (3rd degree) Fire
Burn Treatment • Check the scene • Remove person from the source of burn • Check for life-threatening conditions • Cool burn with large amounts of cold running water
Call 911 if the burned person: • Has trouble breathing • Has burns covering more than one body part or a large surface area • Has burns to airway • Burns to head, neck, hands, feet or genitals
Don’ts for Burn Treatment • Touch a burn with anything but a clean dressing • Remove pieces of clothing attached to burn • Break blisters • Try to clean a severe burn • Use any kind of ointment on a severe burn
Rescue 911 • Christmas Tree Fire • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6I4jUqd3jK0&feature=related • Potpourri Fire • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5cnwZzGaAk
Soft Tissue Injuries • Soft tissue includes the layer of skin, fat and muscle • Cuts, scrapes and bruises – called wounds. There are 2 types of wounds: • Closed • Open
Closed Wounds Example: Simplest is a bruise. Could be more serious. Call 911 if : • A person complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part without pain • You think the force that caused the injury was great enough to cause serious damage • An injured extremity is blue or extremely pale
Bruises (akaContusions) Causes: • When tiny blood vessels are damaged or broken as the result of a blow to the skin • Can result from other injuries to area (ankle ligament sprain)
Closed Wound Treatment • Apply ice for first 48-72 hours • On and off in 20 minute increments • Apply compression with ace wrap Provides: -Support -Decreases swelling
Open Wounds: Types • Abrasions – scrape, rug burn, a road rash or a strawberry
Laceration – a cut in the skin caused by a sharp object like a knife, scissors or broken glass.
Open Wounds • Avulsions – an injury in which a portion of the skin and sometimes other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away (amputation)
Punctures – a pointed object piercing the skin. A gunshot wound is also a puncture wound.
Minor Open Wound Treatment • Use barrierbetween your hand and the wound • Apply direct pressure for a few minutes to control the bleeding • Washthe wound with soap and water • If no allergies, apply antibiotic ointment • Cover the wound with sterile bandages
Minor Open Wound Treatment Bandages are used to: • Hold dressings in place • Control bleeding • Protect wounds • Provide support to an injured limb or body part.
Major Open Wound Treatment --Call 911 • Control bleeding • Cover wound with dressing and press against wound. • Apply a pressure bandage over dressing. • If blood soaks through – Do NOT remove bandage • Add more bandage on top. **** Monitor the persons airway, breathing and circulation
When are stitches needed? • Rule of thumb: Stitches are needed when….. • edges of skin do notfall together • the laceration involves the face • when any wound is over ½ inch long
Preventing Disease Transmission Follow these guidelines when giving 1st aid to help decrease risk of getting or transmitting an infectious disease: - Avoid contact with blood & other body fluids • Use protective breathing barriers • Use disposable gloves • Do not touch anything soiled in blood
Using Gloves • Wash your hands with soap and water after giving care even if you are wearing gloves • Tell EMS if you come in contact with blood • Why do you think it is important to avoid contact with blood????
Cleaning up a blood spill • Clean up spill IMMEDIATELY after it occurs • Use disposable gloves and other protective equipment • Wipe up spill with paper towels or something else durable • After the area has been wiped up use 1 ½ cups of liquid chlorine bleach : 1 gallon of fresh water and let stand for 10 minutes • Dispose in Biohazard container
Scenario 1 Minor Wound Treatment Scrape, cut on wrist
Partner Set Up • Partner #1: Victim • Partner #2: Set Up of treatment • Partner: First Responder
Scenario 2 Bee sting on palm of hand
Rescue 911 • Window Cuts Boy Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zxoPX1gqyHc • Window Cuts Boy Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oL2PIiTKyB4 • Jagged Edge Rescue Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvm0FZFfNs&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PL0EC95EC6A90C30EB • Jagged Edge Rescue Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D454zCQlWvQ&feature=related