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Commercial Data Processing. Standard Grade Computing Studies. What is Commercial Data Processing ?. Commerce - “exchange of merchandise esp. on a large scale” large companies and other organisations. What do we mean by large companies ?. supermarkets banks building societies mail order

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commercial data processing

Commercial Data Processing

Standard Grade Computing Studies

CDP Standard Grade

what is commercial data processing
What is Commercial Data Processing ?
  • Commerce - “exchange of merchandise esp. on a large scale”
  • large companies and other organisations

CDP Standard Grade

what do we mean by large companies
What do we mean by large companies ?
  • supermarkets
  • banks
  • building societies
  • mail order
  • dotcoms
  • airlines

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what do we mean by other organisations
What do we mean by other organisations ?
  • police
  • DVLC
  • income tax
  • local authorities
  • schools

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what do the organisation need for cdp
What do the organisation need for CDP ?
  • Have to process very large amounts of data
  • A mainframe computer system can handle large amounts of data
  • It can
    • process the data quickly
    • process the data accurately
    • give quick access to information
    • carry out repetitive tasks efficiently

CDP Standard Grade

what is the difference between data and information
What is the difference between data and information?
  • Data is numbers, text and symbols which can be accepted, stored and processed. Data has no context.
  • Information can come from data that is processed. Information has a context, a meaning.

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hardware for cdp
Hardware for CDP
  • Mainframe computer
    • CPU
    • input devices
      • terminal for data input
      • operators console for management tasks
      • possibly remote entry
    • output devices
    • backing store

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the data processing cycle

The Data Processing Cycle

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the data processing cycle1
The Data Processing Cycle
  • Data collection and preparation
  • Data input
  • Data processing and storage
  • Data output

but being a cycle means…….

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the data processing cycle2
The Data Processing Cycle

Data collection and preparation

Dataoutput

Data processing and storage

Data input

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data collection and preparation1
Data collection and preparation
  • Source Document
    • order form
    • application form
    • register
    • marks entry sheet

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data input
Data input

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examples of data input
Examples of data input
  • Bar code
  • Magnetic stripe
  • Mark sense cards
  • Character recognition
    • MICR
    • OCR
  • Smart Card

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error checking
Error checking

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error checking1
Error checking
  • Error checking is the process of making sure the data is correct
  • Two forms of error checking are
    • validation
    • verification

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validation
Validation
  • Checking data to ensure it is a sensible value to process.
  • The value may not be necessarily correct.
  • Validation is carried out by the computer system

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examples of validation
Examples of validation
  • Check digit
  • Range check
  • Length check
  • Data type check
  • Presence check
  • Hash total
  • Batch total

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verification
Verification
  • Checking data to ensure it is correct
  • Verification is carried out by people

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example of verification
Example of verification

The usual method for verification is for the data to be typed in twice. This could be

  • One operator typing the data in twice, or
  • Two operators typing the same data in once
  • The computer system then compares the two inputs to check if they are identical

CDP Standard Grade

data processing and storage
Data processing and storage

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slide22

Data processing

Interactive or Real time processing is used to update information. In a big organisation this is usually on a multi-user database.

Can be classified as

  • Sequential access (serial)
  • Random access (direct)

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data storage
Data storage
  • Files, records, fields and data
  • Update
  • Backup
    • File ancestry
      • grandparent, parent,child

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data output
Data output

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data output1
Data output
  • Screen
  • Paper
    • preprinted stationary
  • File

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management information
Management information
  • Stock
  • Staff
  • Multi user databases
  • Single entry, multiple use

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advantages over a manual system
Advantages over a manual system
  • Large amounts of data can be held
  • Data can be processed more quickly
  • Data can be processed more accurately (less errors)
  • Lists can be kept up to date more easily
  • Direct mailing by the use of mail merge

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costs
Costs
  • Initial costs
    • hardware
    • software
    • training
  • Running costs
    • staff
    • maintenance

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data processing staff
Data processing staff
  • Network manager
  • Systems analyst
  • Programmer
  • Engineer

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e commerce
E-commerce

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e commerce1
E-commerce
  • Online banking
  • Online shopping
  • Effects on business
  • Mass market

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banking
Banking
  • What is money?
  • What do we want from banks?
    • Security
    • Accuracy
    • Reliability
    • Privacy

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transferring money
Transferring money
  • Cash transfers
  • Paper transfers
  • Electronic fund transfer (EFT)
  • Home banking
    • on line
    • telephone

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shopping
Shopping
  • Pre-computers
    • Disadvantages
  • Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS)
    • Advantages and disadvantages
    • Structure of bar code
    • Social implications
  • Electronic fund transfer Point of Sale (EFTPOS)

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crime security and privacy
Crime, Security and Privacy
  • Theft
  • Fraud
  • Sale of customer lists
  • Security
    • physical
    • software

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cdp and the law
CDP and the Law
  • Data Protection Act
  • Computer Misuse Act
  • Customer lists regulated by Advertising Standards Authority

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commercial data processing1

Commercial Data Processing

End of presentation

CDP Standard Grade