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Do Now . In your notebooks explain who were (was) Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists? While you are answering that, show me your notebooks with the weekend’s reading . Homework.

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do now
Do Now
  • In your notebooks explain who were (was) Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists?
  • While you are answering that, show me your notebooks with the weekend’s reading
homework
Homework
  • Due Friday April 26th: Read Chapter 28 pages 805-808 stopping at "An upsurge in Chinese Nationalism". Define the following:
  • The Tea & Opium influence (connection)
  • The Opium War
  • Extraterritorial Rights
  • Taiping Rebellion
  • Sphere of Influence
  • Open Door Policy
  • Open your notebooks and show me your completed work.
homework1
Homework
  • Due Monday April 29th: Read Chapter 28 pages 808-809 starting at "An upsurge in Chinese Nationalism". To the end of the section.
  • You are to take notes. Those that did not complete it must have it completed for Monday. It will count as a quiz grade.
  • Due Tuesday pages 810 to 813, stopping at Japanese Occupation of Korea. Take notes and define the following:
  • Commodore Perry Treaty of Kanagawa
  • Meiji Era Russo-Japanese War
  • Treaty of Portsmouth
foreign influence
Foreign Influence
  • By 1864, the Taiping government fell, but China lost as many as 20 million people to the rebellion and wars.
  • The rebellions and foreigners caused a lot of tension in China.
  • The Treaty of Nanjing was eroding by the same foreign governments that forced it on to the Chinese.
  • Internally, powerful leaders could not decide whether to embrace the new path for China or try to return to more traditional ways.
  • The Qing Dynasty was still ruled by one person. The Dowager Empress (1862- 1908).
reforms
Reforms
  • The Dowager Empress did want improvements for China and her people.
  • She pushed for better and improved education, better diplomats (government officials working on the country’s interests).
  • China built new modern factories to build weapons.
  • With China’s struggles, came opportunities for outsiders. The internal struggles allowed foreign governments to take advantage of China’s lack of unity.
  • Each outside government pushed for a treaty that favored their nation at the cost of China.
sphere of influence
Sphere of Influence
  • This influence by foreigners was known as the “Sphere of Influence” in which each government got a foothold or control of a section of China.
reforms1
Reforms
  • After the various defeats (Opium War) and more European challenges, the people wanted greater reforms and responses.
  • In 1898, the young Emperor Guangxu pushed for reforms in education, modernizing the military (to challenge the West) and reform the government.
  • Too many officials in the Qing Dynasty saw this a threat to their way of life (meaning their own personal way of life. They showed little concern for the average Chinese person). They convinced Dowager Empress back to court.
  • She acted quickly, she placed Guangxuunder arrest and she re-took control of the government
reforms2
Reforms
  • She reversed all of Guangxu’s reforms.
  • This only frustrated the people.
  • The people sought to change the course the country was on. Frustrated with the lack of reforms, the special privileges for foreigners,… The people created a secret society called the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Foreigners called them the “Boxers.”
  • The rebellion was known as the Boxer Rebellion and it challenged the Empress and the foreigners.
  • It began in the spring of 1900. The Boxers came to Beijing and surrounded the foreigner section of the city for several months.
  • The Empress quietly supported the Boxers.
reforms3
Reforms
  • Why would the Empress support the Boxers?
  • Better for them to be angry at the foreigners than with her and her government.
  • Once the foreigner government realized their compounds were under siege they all worked together to put down the rebellion.
  • The rebellion failed but was seen as an important step to restore nationalism and for unity to remove the foreigners as well as make the government respond to the people’s needs.
  • The Empress made the unusual step to look to reform the government. Something that was happening around the world at this time too.
reforms4
Reforms
  • The Empress sent officials to all parts of the world to look to re-structure the government.
  • The officials looked at Japan ( a long time rival of China) as their model.
  • They recommended a Constitutional Monarchy. Explain.
  • The monarchy remains but it power is conditional and the legislature has the ultimate say.
  • The Empress announced that a Constitutional Monarchy would be in place by 1917.
reforms5
Reforms
  • After the Empress died in 1908 before many of the governmental reforms occurred. The last Emperor Pu Yi took the throne at age 2. Emperor (Pu Yi ) came to power too young to serve and the country wanted change now. He was forced from the throne. First his power was restricted and then eventually exiled.
  • A revolution turned the country into a republic in 1911. His caretakers arranged for his abdication but he was allowed to keep his title and live in mock-imperial state. Pu Yi did not realize that anything had changed, but as his biographer Edward Behr remarked, his palace was the first of his many prisons. He died in 1967, after living through WWII, Russian captivity and later a prisoner under Mao’s government