Download
medicine s 10 greatest discoveries n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Medicine's 10 greatest discoveries PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Medicine's 10 greatest discoveries

Medicine's 10 greatest discoveries

13 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Medicine's 10 greatest discoveries

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Medicine's 10 greatest discoveries Meyer Friedman and Berald W. Friedland 1998 by Yale University 怪才, 偶然與醫學大發現 趙三賢譯 商周出版(台北, 2004)

  2. 維薩里 (Andreas Vesalius) 與現代人體解剖學 • 哈維 (William Harvey) 與血液循環論 • 雷文霍克 (Antony Leeuwenhoek) 與細菌 • 金納 (Edward Jenner) 與牛痘疫苗 • 朗 (Crawford Long) 與手術麻醉 • 倫琴 (Wilhelm Roentgen) 與X光 • 哈里遜 (Ross Harrison) 與組織培養 • 安尼契科夫 (Nikolai Anichkov) 與膽固醇 • 弗萊明 ( Alexander Fleming) 與抗生素 • 魏爾金 (Maurice Wilkins) 與DNA

  3. 維薩里 (Andreas Vesalius) 與現代人體解剖學 • In 1543 he published his De Humani Corporis Fabrica ("On the Structure of the Human Body", 7 volumes, 1543, published in Basel, Switzerland, with many of the fine engravings rendered by Jan van Calcar, a pupil of Titian) . • Vesalius's dissection of human bodies brought upon him the death sentence for grave-robbing (He stole the bodies of executed criminals). • His empirical approach to anatomy made him the first to challenge Aristotle's naming the heart the seat of the personality. http://noosphere.cc/flandersScientists.html

  4. 另一個對照: • Galen, who served the emperor Marcus Aurelius, wrote over 500 books on medicine. • Although Galen discovered the functions of many internal organs, he made many mistakes because he assumed that the human body worked exactly like that of other animals.  Galen, (AD 129-210), the historical physician from the Roman era, is depicted with other classical figures, 2nd Avenue north of St. Marks Place (New York. It's on the buildings high above and in the subways and tunnels deep below. It's even in the paths the streets take). http://www.ea.pvt.k12.pa.us/medant/galbio.htm

  5. 還有另一個對照: • ~200; 華佗: 因刳破腹背,抽割積聚。若在腸胃,則斷截湔洗,除去疾穢,既可縫合,傅以神膏。 • 1041-1048 (宋仁宗);吳簡: 歐希範五臟圖。 • 1273 (元);孫煥: 玄門脈內照圖。 • 1331;李仲南: 永類欽方 (針、剪、刀、鑿、麻線、尋白線)。 • 1768-1831;王清任: 醫林改錯。 http://61.129.65.8:82/gate/big5/museum.eastday.com/museum/yishi3.htm

  6. 哈維 (William Harvey) 與血液循環論 • William Harvey (1578-1657) usinga deer to demonstrate the circulatorysystem. His research laid the foundation for a scientific approach to medicine. http://www.bumc.bu.edu/Departments/PageMain.asp?Page=1727&DepartmentID=69

  7. 哈維 (William Harvey) 與血液循環論 • Harvey shows that venal blood flows only toward the heart. He ligatured an arm to make obvious the veins and their valves, then pressed blood away from the heart and showed that the vein would remain empty because blocked by the valve. • On the Circulation of the Blood (1628). http://www.timelinescience.org/resource/students/blood/harvey.htm

  8. 朗 (Crawford Long) 與手術麻醉 • Dr. Long was a young bachelor of 27, when he noticed that participants under the recreational use of ether felt no pain from injuries received during their “frolics.” He reached the conclusion that ether could make surgery painless. The opportunity to test his theory came when James Venable requested that Dr. Long remove a cyst from his neck. March 30, 1842, first used ether for surgical anesthesia. http://www.crawfordlong.org/Welcome&History.HTM

  9. 另一個對照 • 華佗,字元化,又名敷,約生于公元2世紀初,死于東漢建安十三年(208)以前,沛國譙(今安徽亳縣)人。擅長外科麻醉手術。 • 在公元2世紀發明麻醉劑——“麻沸散” 。他用“麻沸散”做全身麻醉,進行開腹手術。《後漢書‧華佗傳》記載:“若疾發結于內,針藥所不能及者,乃令先以酒服麻沸散,既醉無所覺,因刳破腹背,抽割積聚。若在腸胃,則斷截湔洗,除去疾穢,既可縫合,傅以神膏,四五日創愈,一月間皆平復。” http://www.xinhuatuo.com/UploadFiles/20041382756198.jpg

  10. 倫琴 (Wilhelm Roentgen) 與X光 • Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen’s discovery of x-rays in 1895. Experiments conducted prior to this official beginning – one as early as 1785 by Welsh mathematician William Morgan – actually were the field’s first steps. Scientists had experimented with cathode rays during the 1850s. • Within a year of Roentgen’s work there were nearly 1,000 scientific papers published about x-rays! • In 1896, JAMA carried an article theorizing the therapeutic use of x-rays. However, some of the early work resulted in harm and death. From 1896 to 1903, 14 British operators died from over exposure. http://www.msit.com/rad_hist.html

  11. 哈里遜 (Ross Harrison) 與組織培養 • In an early experiment, he joined parts of embryos from differently coloured frogs to observe the movement of cells during the subsequent development of the embryos produced in this way. He found a new method of studying cells, the hanging- drop culture method (1907), by which he kept fragments of living tissue alive in suitable media and watch them multiply. • One of Harrison's first experiments was based on an experiment of a young German anatomist, G. Born. In 1894, Born had discovered by chance that parts of frog embryos when cut apart could be healed together again. • http://www.todayinsci.com/cgi-bin/indexpage.pl?http://www.todayinsci.com/1/1_13.htm • http://zygote.swarthmore.edu/axon1a.html

  12. 哈里遜這個人 • 兩次與諾貝爾獎擦身而過 • 1917年,因為戰爭的緣故而不頒發生理醫學獎 (反德意識, 這個美國動物學家與德國的淵源很深) 。 • 1933 ,組織培養是一門價值相當有限的技術,1907年Harrison的發現已經過了太多年。 • 尼可拉斯寫他的回憶錄時的結尾說: 凡他所做的,盡都順利。 怪才, 偶然與醫學大發現, 商周出版(台北, 2004), 頁: 210-212

  13. 安尼契科夫 (Nikolai Anichkov) 與膽固醇 http://medweb.pc.edu/students/med2003/couch1/page2.html http://www.si.se/templates/NewsLetterIssuePopup____2384.aspx

  14. 安尼契科夫 (Nikolai Anichkov) 與膽固醇 1912 Nikolai Anichkov discovered that cholesterol was responsible for coronary artery disease, currently the world's most deadly disease. • Rabbits are vegetarians -- they never eat meat.  Dr. Anichkov fed rabbits lots of meat and they died.  He claimed that they died from heart disease and that they had very high cholesterol on the basis of their meat diet. • What a foolish claim!  Many scientists in more modern times will make reference to this "study" without ever telling you about it -- so as to make a false claim of early origin for the "high-cholesterol causes heart disease" myth! • Karl Loren (科學異議份子): http://www.chelationtherapyonline.com/articles/p129.htm

  15. 魏爾金 (Maurice Wilkins) 與DNA • He had spent seven years in physics research and now began in biophysics. • He was first concerned with genetic effects of ultrasonics. After one or two years, he changed his research to development of reflecting microscopes for ultraviolet microspectrophotometric study of nucleic acids in cells. • He then began X-ray diffraction studies of DNA and sperm heads. Further X-ray studies established the correctness DNA structure. • http://www.louisville.edu/a-s/chemistry/ peptide/Crick.JP • http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1962/wilkins-bio.html

  16. by AAPA’s Clinical and Scientific Affairs Council By Friedman & Freidland • the PA Profession • Penicillin (9), Fleming • Insulin (8?) • HIV (3?) • Organ Transplantation • Oral Contraceptives • Smoking/Lung cancer (8?) • Polio Vaccine • Eradication of Smallpox (4) • CT/MRI (6) • DNA (10), Watson & Click • 人體解剖學 • 血液循環論 • 細菌 • 牛痘疫苗 • 手術麻醉 • X光 • 組織培養 • 膽固醇 • 抗生素, Fleming • DNA, Wilkins

  17. 天才嗎? • 我們讚嘆這十位發現者與生俱來的聰明, 但我們並不訝異於這樣的智力, 因為我們可以了解他們思考的軌跡。事實上, 我們相信, 假如易地而處, 我們也能達到它們的成就。 然而,沒人會妄想自己擁有莫札特的音樂天份、莎士比亞的戲劇天份,或是牛頓的物理天份。 怪才, 偶然與醫學大發現, 商周出版(台北, 2004), 頁: 335 • 這些”偉大的”發現共通的本質是什麼?

  18. 台灣的科學家有那些值得寫的事? • 蛇毒傳奇: • 杜聰明: http://www.medtoday.com.tw/35319.htm • 李鎮源: http://www.nmns.edu.tw/New/Exhibits/89/snake/lee.htm • 肝癌: • 宋瑞樓: http://www.commonhealth.com.tw/content/043/043088.asp • 陳定信: http://www3.tpml.edu.tw/opec/book1-34-05.htm Note by BC: 中國人寫傳記,所有出名的人都像是故事書的平面偉人,”大師”的稱呼說多了會另人麻痺。