Hearing Impairment (H.I.). Morgan Hartwig and Ally Trudell. Hearing Loss Simulation. Sound in quiet environment with normal hearing Sound in noisy environment with normal hearing Sound in quiet with moderate to severe hearing loss Sound in noise with moderate to severe hearing loss
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Hearing Impairment (H.I.) Morgan Hartwig and Ally Trudell
Hearing Loss Simulation • Sound in quiet environment with normal hearing • Sound in noisy environment with normal hearing • Sound in quiet with moderate to severe hearing loss • Sound in noise with moderate to severe hearing loss • Sound in quiet with profound hearing loss • Sound in quiet with cochlear implant distortion
Misconceptions (that we will correct) • When a student has a hearing aid or cochlear implant, they are “fixed” and can hear normally. • Over-enunciating words and speaking loudly makes it easier for students to understand. • Sign language and lip reading work for all adults and children with hearing loss and are the preferred methods for communication. • Hearing loss is genetic and occurs at birth or in old age.
Introduction • Hearing impairment occurs when there is an inability for sounds to be transmitted through or interpreted by our brain • Hearing impairment can begin at birth (congenital) or can occur over time (acquired) • Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL): headphones, TVs, video games • Acquired loss can be sudden or progressive • Hearing impairment varies for each person and can differ in severity in each ear • Hearing loss is the most common birth anomaly (3 in 1,000) and occurs in 1 in 10 adults
Types of Hearing Impairment • Sound waves travel to the ear and are interpreted by our brain • Conductive hearing loss vs. Sensorineural hearing loss or mixed hearing loss (both)
Conductive Hearing Loss • Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the ear canal, ear drum, middle ear, or ossicles • Sounds are heard much lower than they are heard by others • Can usually be fixed with surgery • Otitis media: ear infection • Ruptured ear drum • Change in air pressure
Sensorineural Hearing Loss • Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the cochlea or auditory nerve • Permanent hearing loss • Hearing aids and cochlear implants • Cochlear implants bypass damage and send signals straight to auditory nerve • Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder • Genetic disorders (50% of hearing loss) • Head injuries • Complications during pregnancy • Severe illness
Pre-Lingual vs. Post-Lingual Hearing Loss • Pre-Lingual hearing loss can lead to delays in language, communication, and social skills • Low self-image, emotional and behavioral difficulties • ASL and lip reading • Early intervention! • Post-Lingual hearing loss does not require as much modification
Signs of Hearing Loss Does your student… • Ask you to repeat yourself often or get upset at the volume of noises in the classroom? • Develop vocabulary more slowly than their peers? • Have speech that is difficult to understand or that is too loud or too soft? • Often ask for words to be repeated? • Turn on the TV/headphones too loud? • Appear inattentive at school and have trouble learning to read or perform simple mathematics?
Modifications • Eye contact! • Before beginning instruction • Face the student • Speak clearly, but don’t exaggerate • Use body language • Physical contact appropriate when eye contact is not maintained • Establish cue system and routines • Emergency procedures • Parent contact and communication • Student input/feedback regularly
Curricular Accommodations • Technology and Visuals • FM systems: transmitter microphone with speakers or receiver • Voice recognition software • Videos with closed captioning • Beware of “visual pollution” • Written questions and content before instruction • Repeat new material, vocab • Sensitivity to other sight, taste, smell, touch • Location of seat; low traffic areas • Background noise
Teacher Resources • Hearinglosseducation.com • Hearingexchange.com • Hearingaidhelp.com • Jimrodslz.com • Kidshealth.org • Marchofdimes.com • CDC.gov • Childrenshospital.org • Ibilitiy,org • Wvu.edu
References • American Speech-Language Hearing Association Website. http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm April 2011 • Hammes DM, Novak MA, Rotz LA, Willis M, Edmondson DM, Thomas JF. Early identification and the cochlear implant: Critical factors for spoken language development. Ann Otol Rhino Laryngol2002;111:74-78 • Montano, J. (2011, April). Living Well With Hearing Loss. In Hearing Health Magazine. Retrieved April, 2011 • Strategies for Teaching Students with Hearing Impairments. (2007, May). In WVU Teaching Students with Disabilities . Retrieved April, 2011, from http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/hearing.html • Mayer, Richard. Learning and Instruction. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003
Our Cousins • Morgan’s Uncle Nathan and cousin Caleb • Ally’s cousin Owen hearing for the first time