Learning Targets • Compare the nonviolent Civil Rights Movement to Black Power • Examine the role of law enforcement and the government in the rise of the Black Power movement • Explain the goals and actions of the Black Panther Party
Black Power • Nonviolent movement too slow • Stokely Carmichael called for black pride and power • Focused on racism across the nation “It is clear to me that we have to wage a psychological battle on the right for black people to define their own terms, define themselves as they see fit and organize themselves as they see it.” -- Stokely Carmichael
“If I win I am an American, not a black American. But if I did something bad then they would say a ‘Negro.’ We are black and we are proud of being black. Black Americans will understand what we did tonight.” --Tommie Smith U.S. athletes, having placed gold and bronze medals, respectively, in the 200m dash at the 1968 Olympics, stepped onto the podium, shoeless, wearing black socks, and, as “The Star-Spangled Banner” sounded, lowered their heads, and raised gloved, Black power fist salutes to the heavens. (LIFE -John Dominis)
Malcolm X • “Whatever means necessary” • Black pride, self-defense & separatism “Concerning nonviolence: It is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself, when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks. It is legal and lawful to own a shotgun or a rifle. We believe in obeying the law.“ -- Malclom X “While King was having a dream, the rest of us Negroes are having a nightmare.” --Malcolm X
The Black Panther Party (BPP) • Why? - racial tension and police brutality • Self-defense against racist authorities • Ten-Point Program
The Ten Point Plan 1. We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our Black Community. 2. We want full employment for our people. 3. We want an end to the robbery by the white man of our Black Community. 4. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings. 5. We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society. 6. We want all black men to be exempt from military service. 7. We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people. 8. We want freedom for all black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails. 9. We want all black people when brought to trial to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their black communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States. 10. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace. And as our major political objective, a United Nations-supervised plebiscite for Black Americans to determine their will as to their national destiny.
BPP Actions • Patrolled the streets to monitor police • “Breakfast for Children” program • Spread across U.S.
Conflict with the Law • Sacramento gun law protest • Police & FBI target • shootouts in CA, Chicago & NY BPP wanted 2nd amendment right!
Black Panther Coloring Book • Describe the content of the coloring book. • How might a person picking up this coloring book react? What might they think? • What impact could this have had on the Black Panther Party?
COINTELPRO • WHAT: FBI’s Counterintelligence program • PURPOSE: expose & disrupt activities of Black Nationalists, esp. BPP • HOW: anonymous letters, fake coloring book, pressure on employers