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Comprehension. Language and Psychology. Overview. The comprehension of sounds The comprehension of words The comprehension of sentences. The nature of comprehension. The phoneme restoration effect. It was found that the _eel was on the axle. It was found that the _eel was on the shoe.

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comprehension

Comprehension

Language and Psychology

overview
Overview
  • The comprehension of sounds
  • The comprehension of words
  • The comprehension of sentences
the phoneme restoration effect
The phoneme restoration effect
  • It was found that the _eel was on the axle.
  • It was found that the _eel was on the shoe.
  • It was found that the _eel was on the orange.
  • It was found that the _eel was on the table.
the phoneme restoration effect1
The phoneme restoration effect
  • It was found that the wheel was on the axle.
  • It was found that the heel was on the shoe.
  • It was found that the peel was on the orange.
  • It was found that the meel was on the table.
the phoneme restoration effect2
The phoneme restoration effect
  • Listeners do not accurately record what they hear.
  • They report what they expected to hear from the context.
what is comprehension
What is comprehension?
  • Comprehension is not the passive recording of what is heard or seen. We do not necessarily hear all words spoken to us.
  • Comprehension is strongly susceptible to the slightest of change in discourse which the listener is attending to.
  • Comprehension is not processed in a linear sequence. We process chunks of information, not individual words and not meaning in isolation.
what phonemic information is used to distinguish penny from benny
What phonemic information is used to distinguish Penny from Benny?
  • Voice onset timing (VOT)
    • The brief burst of air which precedes the articulation of all stop consonants.
    • Provides phonetic information listeners use to distinguish between sounds like [p] and [b]
      • [p] is 50 millisecond (1/20 second) later than [b].
g vs k
[g] vs. [k]

http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=1999-05027-010

q1 how do we perceive the subtle difference so rapidly and so accurately
Q1: How do we perceive the subtle difference so rapidly and so accurately?
  • We are born with the ability to perceive subtle phonetic differences.
  • Categorical perception
    • We perceive the phonetic differences in binary either-or fashion.
slide14
Q2: Is the ability to categorically perceive phonetic differences influenced by the linguistic environment?
the psychological mechanisms that affect lexical processing parallel distributed processing pdp
The psychological mechanisms that affect lexical processing: Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)
  • the representation of information is distributed (not local)
  • memory and knowledge are stored in the connections between units.
  • learning can occur with gradual changes in connection strength by experience.

http://web.lemoyne.edu/~hevern/psy101_11F/psy101lectures/12memory2_outline.html

slide18

The logogen model (Morton, 1969, 1970)

http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Psycholinguistics/Lexical_Access

the frequency effect
The frequency effect
  • The high frequency words have low threshold of activation.
  • The low frequency words have high threshold of activation.

http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Psycholinguistics/Lexical_Access

what can the pdp model account for
What can the PDP model account for?
  • The Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
  • The bathtub effect
  • Spreading activation network
tip of the tongue tot phenomenon
Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) phenomenon
  • We try to retrieve a word we think we know, but we just cannot recall the word at that moment.

http://www.reference.com/browse/tip_of_the_tongue

the bathtub effect
the bathtub effect
  • We tend to remember the beginning and the end of a word better than the middle part.
spreading activation networks
Spreading activation networks
  • concepts are connected via nodes and the strength of the connection is represented by the distance between the nodes

http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Psycholinguistics/Semantics_in_the_Brain

the process of spreading activation
The process of spreading activation
  • Activation begins at a single node and then spread in parallel form throughout the network.
  • The force of activation is reduced over distance, thus ensuring that closely related concepts are more likely to be activated than distant concept.
comprehension difficulties
Comprehension Difficulties
  • Transformational complexity
    • Derivational Theory of Complexity (DTC)
  • Ambiguity
derivational theory of complexity
Derivational Theory of Complexity

Difficulty in comprehension was derived from the number of transformations that were added on to the original phrase structure of the sentence.

problems
Problems
  • Unexplainable exceptions
  • Passive sentence takes less time to recall than negative sentences.
    • John was hit > Tom did not hit John.
the semantic factor
The semantic factor
  • It takes less time for semantically plausible sentences.
    • The struggling swimmer was rescued by the lifeguard.
    • The struggling swimmer rescued the lifeguard.
the semantic factor1
The semantic factor
  • Negation is grammatically simple, but semantically difficult to comprehend.
    • The struggling swimmer was rescued by the lifeguard.
    • The struggling swimmer was not rescued by the lifeguard.
ambiguity
Ambiguity
  • The phoneme monitoring task
    • Subjects listen to paired sentences and are asked to react as soon as they hear a target phoneme.
    • Sentences containing more complex information in the clause before the target phoneme will create a greater lag in reaction time.
slide33
Sentences containing more complex information in the clause before the target phoneme will create a greater lag in reaction time.

Semantic Ambiguity

  • The men started to drill before they were ordered to do so.
  • The men stared to march before they were ordered to do so.
garden pathing
Garden-pathing
  • The linear left-to-right unfolding of sentence structure helps the listener/reader anticipate the next word or words which will follow.
    • Without her contributions failed to appear.
    • Since she always jogs a mile seems a short distance.
failure syntactic parsing principles
Failure syntactic parsing principles

Without her contributions failed to appear

http://www.ling.sinica.edu.tw/eip/FILES/journal/2007.6.21.11349123.6028631.pdf