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Isotopes of Magnesium

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  1. 12p+ 14n0 12p+ 13n0 12p+ 12n0 Isotopes of Magnesium 12e- 12e- 12e- 24 12 25 12 26 12 Atomic symbol Mg Mg Mg Number of protons 12 12 12 Number of electrons 12 12 12 Mass number 24 25 26 Number of neutrons12 13 14 Isotope Notation Mg-24 Mg-25 Mg-26 Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 64

  2. 1 p+ 1 p+ 1 n 1 p+ 2 n 1 e- 1 e- 1 e- H-1 H-2 H-3 Isotopes of Hydrogen Protium Deuterium Tritium (heavy hydrogen) (radioactive hydrogen) (ordinary hydrogen) Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry 1999, page 100

  3. 1 p+ 1 p+ 1 n 1 p+ 2 n 1 e- 1 e- 1 e- Isotopes of Hydrogen • Protium (H-1) 1 proton, 0 neutrons, 1 electron most abundant isotope • Deuterium (H-2) 1 proton, 1 neutron, 1 electron used in “heavy water” • Tritium (H-3) 1 proton, 2 neutrons, 1 electron radioactive

  4. Isotopes of Three Common Elements Mass Number Mass (amu) 12 12(exactly) C 99.89% 12 6 12.01 C 13.003 1.11% 13 6 13 Cl 35 34.969 75.53% 35 17 35.45 Cl 37 36.966 24.47% 37 17 28 14 29 14 28.09 30 14 LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 110

  5. Radioisotopes • Radioactive isotopes • Many uses • Medical diagnostics • Optimal composition of fertilizers • Abrasion studies in engines and tires Radioisotope is injected into the bloodstream to observe circulation.

  6. b 5.73 x 103 years Carbon-14 Potassium-40 b, g 1.25 x 109 years Radon-222 3.8 days a Radium-226 1.6 x 103 years a, g 7.54 x 104 years a, g Thorium-230 Thorium-234 24.1 days b, g Uranium-235 7.0 x 108 years a, g Uranium-238 4.46 x 109 years a Half-Life of Isotopes Half-Lives and Radiation of Some Naturally Occurring Radioisotopes Isotope Half-Life Radiation emitted

  7. Atomic Structure • ATOMS • Differ by number of protons • IONS • Differ by number of electrons • ISOTOPES • Differ by number of neutrons

  8. sodium ion Na+ e- e- e- e- 11p+ e- e- e- e- e- e- Formation of Cation sodium atom Na e- e- e- e- e- e- loss of one valence electron 11p+ e- e- e- e- e- e-

  9. chloride ion Cl1- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- 17p+ e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- Formation of Anion chlorine atom Cl gain of one valence electron e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- 17p+ e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e-

  10. sodium ion Na+ e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- 11p+ e- e- 17p+ e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- Formation of Ionic Bond chloride ion Cl1-

  11. n = 3 n = 3 Ionic Bonding NaCl n = 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Na [Ne]3s1 Cl [Ne]3s23p5 Na+ [Ne] Cl- [Ne]3s23p6 Transfer of electrons to achieve a stable octet (8 electrons in valence shell).

  12. n = 2 - - - - Covalent Bonding - - - - n = 1 - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - O [He]2s22p4 O [He]2s22p4 O2 Sharing of electrons to achieve a stable octet (8 electrons in valence shell).