MAGNESIUM The eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust
How it functions in body metabolism • Approximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly inside cells of body tissues and organs. Only 1% of magnesium is found in blood, but the body works very hard to keep blood levels of magnesium constant. • Magnesium helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involve in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. • Magnesium is excreted through the kidneys. • Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. • Helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong
Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources • Magnesium is a mineral, so therefore just like calcium, magnesium must be absorbed through dietary intake.
Food Sources • Green vegetables such as spinach because the center of the chlorophyll molecule(which gives green vegetables their color) • Legumes(beans and peas) • Nuts and seeds • Unrefined grains • Tap water (varies according to the water supply)
Daily Requirement (RDA) • ADULT MEN 19 to 30 400mg • 31 yrs and older 420mg • ADULT WOMEN 19 to 30 310mg • 31 yrs and older 320mg
Deficiency/Disease Treatment • Hypomagnesemia, resulting in low blood calcium levels, muscle cramps,spasms or seizures, nausea, weakness, irritability and confusion • Chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes • Early signs of magnesium deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea,vomiting,fatigue,and weakness
Fun Facts • “HARD” water contains more magnesium than “Soft” water • Craving chocolate? Take some magnesium to help take the cravings away
CALCIUM The most abundant mineral in the human body.
How it functions in body metabolism • More than 99% of total body calcium is stored in the bones and teeth where it functions to support their structure. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle, and the fluid between cells. • Calcium is also critical for the normal transmission of nerve impulses. Calcium flows into nerve cells and stimulates the release of molecules called neurotransmitters. • Calcium also plays the role in muscle contraction, healthy blood pressure, the initiation of blood clotting, and the regulation of various hormones and enzymes.
Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources • Your body needs calcium to build and maintain strong bones and teeth. You must absorb calcium every day from your dietary intake because your body does not make calcium
Salmon, canned, with edible bones, 3 oz. Fortified oatmeal, 1 packet Sardines, canned in oil, with edible bones, 3 oz. Orange juice, fortified with calcium, 6 oz. Cheddar cheese, 1½ oz. shredded Tofu, firm, with calcium, ½ cup Milk, nonfat, 1 cup Milkshake, 1 cup Baked beans, 1 cup Yogurt, plain, low-fat, 1 cup Soybeans, cooked, 1 cup 200-260 (varies 300 302 142 261 350 300 204 306 181 324 Food Sources Food Calcium (mg)
Daily Requirement (RDA) • Males and females 9 - 18 years 1,300 mg • Women and men 19 - 50 years 1,000 mg • Pregnant or nursing women 1,300 mg • Pregnant or nursing women 19 - 50 1,000 mg • Men and women over 50 1,200mg
DEFICIENCY/DISEASESTREATMENT • OSTEOPOROSIS • BONE FRACTURES • CONVULSION • MUSCLE SPASMS • HEART FAILURE • BLEEDER’S DISEASE
Fun Facts • There is a widespread concern that Americans are not meeting the recommended intake for calcium. According to the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 1994-96), the following percentage of Americans are not meeting their recommended intake for calcium: • 44% boys and 58% girls ages 6-11 • 64% boys and 87% girls ages 12-19 • 55% men and 78% of women ages 20+