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The Reformation
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  1. The Reformation Chapter 17 Sections 3 & 4

  2. People increasingly became more critical of the Catholic Church • Too interested in worldly pursuits, gain wealth, and gain political power

  3. Major Causes of the Reformation

  4. Early reformists- John Wycliffe, Jan Huss, Desiderius Erasmus, Thomas More • People read printed religious works and start forming their own criticisms

  5. Luther challenges the Church • Martin Luther was a German monk (fear-nearly struck by lightening) and a teacher • He did not plan on leading a religious revolution- he just wanted to be a better Christian

  6. Luther challenges the Church • In 1517, he takes a public stand against the practice of selling indulgences (released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins- buy their way to heaven) • He wrote 95 Theses (statements) attacking this policy • He posted his work on the door of a castle church and invited others to debate him

  7. Luther challenges the Church • Luther’s writings were printed and quickly spread- his actions started the Reformation (movement for religious reform) • Luther decided he wanted a full reform of the Church- main ideas: • People could win salvation only by faith (not faith and “good works”) • All Church teaching should be clearly based on the Bible (the Church traditions and pope were false authorities) • All people with faith were equal, therefore they didn’t need a priest to interpret the Bible for them

  8. Luther challenges the Church • In the beginning, the Church doesn’t see him as a threat but as the ideas spread, they change their views • In 1520, Pope Leo X issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statements. • Luther did not, Leo excommunicated Luther

  9. Luther challenges the Church • Luther was summoned to the town of Worms (by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) to stand trial- again he was told to recant, he refused • Charles issues an imperial order (Edict of Worms)- declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic- no one in the empire was allowed to give Luther food or shelter • A prince did anyway and Luther spent the year translating the New Testament into German

  10. Luther challenges the Church • By 1522, Luther and followers decided they did not want to continue to seek reforms within the Catholic Church • They formed a separate religious group known as the Lutherans • Eventually, the term Protestants begins being used- Protestant was applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches • See page 491

  11. England becomes Protestant • Henry VIII became king of England in 1509- he was a devout Catholic • In 1527, Henry wanted to divorce his wife Catherine because he needed an heir (son). They had 1 daughter Mary • He wanted a younger wife • The Church did not allow divorce, but would annul marriages that were proven never to have been legal • The Pope refuses (does not want to anger Catherine’s nephew- the Holy Roman Emperor)

  12. England becomes Protestant • In 1529, Henry separates from the Church and ends the Pope’s power in England- he becomes head of the English Church • In 1533 he married Anne Boleyn and has a daughter Elizabeth • She falls out of favor and charges her with treason- she is put to death • Henry VIII had 6 wives- He divorced 2, put 2 to death, 1 died of natural causes, and 1 outlived him

  13. England becomes Protestant • Mary later becomes the Queen of England- knick-named Bloody Mary because she was Catholic and killed many Protestants • After Mary’s death, Elizabeth becomes the Queen. She was Protestant and tried to return some peace to her kingdom. • She created the Church of England or the Anglican Church. It was moderate- something Catholics and Protestant could tolerate • Some sort of religious peace returned to England

  14. More reformers break away from the Church • Huldrych Zwingli • Priest from Switzerland- attacked abuses of Church, wanted a more personal faith, later died- but ideas spread

  15. More reformers break away from the Church • John Calvin • 1536, Calvin publishes a book that expressed ideas about God, salvation, and human nature • People were sinful by nature • God chooses a very few people to save (predestination-God has known who would be saved since the beginning of time) • The religion became known as Calvinism • Ideal government was theocracy (govt. controlled by religious leaders) • Calvin and followers lead Geneva (Switzerland)- strict rules (no bight clothes or card games)

  16. More reformers break away from the Church • John Knox admired Calvin and created the Presbyterian church • Many Protestant churches today trace their roots to Calvin • In France, followers (of Calvin) called Huguenots- hated by Catholics • As many as 12,000 killed in 6 months

  17. More reformers break away from the Church • Anabaptists • Believed in adult baptism • Separation of Church and State, refuse to fight in wars, share their possessions • Persecuted by Catholics and Protestants • Forerunners of the Mennonites, Amish, and Quakers

  18. Women • Women were important in spreading reformist ideas and played behind-the-scenes importance

  19. Catholic Reformation (aka Counter Reformation) • Reforms made within the Catholic Church • Eliminate Church abuses • Clarify theology and reestablish the power of the Pope • Rejoin Protestants (lead them back to the Church) • Ignatius of Loyola • Started the Society of Jesus- members called Jesuits • Founded schools throughout Europe • Convert non-Christians to Catholicism • Stop the spread of Protestantism

  20. Catholic Reformation (aka Counter Reformation) • Pope Paul III • Directed a council of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling and other abuses • Approved the Jesuit order • Used the Inquisition to seek out heresy • Called the Council of Trent • Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final • Need faith and good works for salvation • The Bible and Church tradition guided Christian life • Indulgences were valid expressions of faith, but could not by falsely sold

  21. Catholic Reformation (aka Counter Reformation) • Pope Paul IV • Carried out the Council’s decree • Drew up a list of forbidden books • Was it successful? • Yes- they did reclaim some Catholic people and lands • No- they did not eliminate the Protestant movement

  22. The Legacy of the Reformation • Led to the modern world and ended Christian unity of Europe • Protestant churches flourished and new denominations formed • Catholic Church became more unified • More emphasis on education in promoting their beliefs • New schools, colleges, and universities were built throughout Europe • Women’s roles didn’t change- limited to home and family • Monarchs and states gain more power over Church officials