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The Reformation. The Reformation The Counter Reformation The Scientific Revolution. The Reformation. I've seen things you people wouldn't believe. Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched C-beams glitter in the dark near the Tannhauser gate.

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The Reformation

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    1. The Reformation The Reformation The Counter Reformation The Scientific Revolution

    2. The Reformation I've seen things you people wouldn't believe. Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched C-beams glitter in the dark near the Tannhauser gate. All those moments will be lost in time, …like tears in rain. …Time to die.

    3. The Reformation • Blade Runner

    4. Rome, …We have a Problem • The Catholic Church was very powerful and the kings and rulers of Europe knew that to maintain or increase their power they needed the blessing of the Pope. • The Catholic Church was the one thing that Europeans had in common • It unified the people • It was sanctioned by God • The church held final say on things that were of heaven and of earth • The Pope was seen as infallible-he was God’s man on Earth • To get to Heaven you needed to abide by the rules of the Catholic Church-almost everyone understood this

    5. Rome, …We have a Problem • Indulgences • The church wanted to keep up with the times and Renaissance painters and building large buildings cost money • To keep money coming into the church the church began selling indulgences

    6. Rome, …We have a Problem • Purgatory • Was seen as the great holding place were people would go after death to basically do time for their sins • Purgatory was not a place most Catholic wanted to spend their time • To reduce the time in purgatory the church began to sell indulgences

    7. Rome, …We have a Problem SPECIAL OFFER LIMITED TIME ONLY Are you looking at 300 or 400 years in Purgatory! Don’t want to wait in that long line with the other common sinners! Then the Catholic Church as a deal for you! We can reduce your time in Purgatory! You give us money-More money means less time in Purgatory AND We give you a piece of paper reducing your time in Purgatory and getting you into Heaven faster! (This offer is not good in any Christian Orthodox Community)

    8. Rome, …We have a Problem • The Church was making a lot of money off the sales of indulgences • The sale of indulgences also kept the masses in line • Only through the Catholic Church can you get to Heaven • The sale of indulgences also upset the peasants • Many could not afford to pay for the indulgences so they were basically left out of the process • Many felt that they were going to suffer here on earth and then in Purgatory

    9. Rome, …We have a Problem • The church had amassed a large amount of money • It had alienated some nobles who were unwilling to submit to the power of the church • The church exploited the resources of countries by draining them of wealth • What arose was anti-Church sentiments

    10. I am on a mission from God • Martin Luther • Luther was a Catholic monk who became upset with the indulgence practices of the Catholic Church • Luther called the indulgences “Salvation for profit”

    11. I am on a mission from God • Luther also went to Rome and saw the wealth that the church had amassed and was not happy that the Vatican was more of a worldly city. • Luther saw the Renaissances works that had been paid for by churchgoers who would never see the Vatican and was disillusioned with goals of the church

    12. Signs, Signs, Everywhere are Signs • Luther went home very upset • In 1517 Luther wrote down his grievances with the Catholic Church • He wrote his famous 95 Theses and attached it to the church door at Wittenberg

    13. Some Key Points • 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved • 82. To wit: -- "Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial."

    14. Not too Happy with Luther • To say the least Luther did not make friends with the Catholic Church • Luther saw the Pope and the Catholic Church as greedy • The Catholic Church saw Luther as a troublemaker and a heretic • Pope Leo X

    15. Not too Happy with Luther • The Church (Pope Leo X) tells Luther to retract his criticisms at an assembly at Worms • Luther refuses • Pope Leo X wants Luther arrested and tried • Luther is now a fugitive from the Catholic Church • However Luther’s ideas, with the aid of the printing press, spread throughout northern Europe • Remember the nobles that were upset with the church? They protect and side with Luther • The church excommunicates Luther • Luther says no big deal-Don’t like you and your rules anyway-I’ll start my own church-Lutheran Church-We will call ourselves Protestants and play by our own rules

    16. Those who went before Luther…But had Failed • Prior to Luther a number of clergy members attempted to make reforms in the church • Most of the time these clergy members wanted to return back to its spiritual roots

    17. Those who went before Luther…But had Failed • John Wycliffe-Oxford University wanted to return the church to its roots. • Starts a following called the Lollards • The Catholic Church does not go after Wycliffe while he is alive-after he dies they burn his body and persecute his followers • Jan Hus-German clergyman • Burned at the stake in 1415 • Savonarola-Dominican Friar • Used violence to rid Florence of worldly vanity • Executed by the Church in 1498

    18. The Backlash from Luther’s Reforms • Most obvious • There was a split in the Catholic Church • Catholics and Protestants • Interpretations of the Bible • Theologians began to look at the Bible and come up with their own ideas on what the Bible actually meant • Some agreed with Luther-Others were way out there

    19. Calvinism • Other Protestant groups began to appear • In the 1530’s John Calvin a French scholar established a Protestant community in Geneva Switzerland

    20. Calvinism • John Calvin preached the idea of Predestination • It was the idea that God had already predetermined the ultimate destiny for all people • Calvin believed that only a few people would be saved the (Elect) and the rest were already damned

    21. Calvinism • Calvinism would spread to France and later to Scotland • It would influence • The Huguenots in France • The Puritans in England • The Presbyterians in Scotland

    22. Henry VIII needs a new Wife • Henry VIII of England wanted an annulment from his first wife who failed to produce a male heir to the throne • The Pope declined the annulment • Henry upset with the Pope and Church renounced the Church

    23. Henry VIII needs a new Wife • Henry placed himself as head of the church of England • Called his new religion Anglicanism • Henry then went on to marry 5 more women and cut off the heads of 4 of those women • The new Anglican (Protestant) religion caused a split in England while about half the population remained Catholic while the other half converted to Protestant.

    24. So what’s the Big Difference? • Protestants • Placed less emphasis on the rituals and sacraments • Opposed the worship of Saints and The Virgin Mary-detracted from the relationship with God • Only the Grace of God could save humans not the Pope, Priest or any other church member • The Bible was more of guidelines open to interpretation • Emphasized education of all people • More lenient about divorce, clergy allowed to marry • Rejected Transubstantiation • That the bread and wine were transformed into the body of Christ

    25. Hey, Not even we get along • Not all protestant religions agreed with their own doctrines • Calvinist were server and puritanical • The Anglican Church was much more relaxed • The Puritans in England (The minority) were often persecuted by the Anglicans (The majority) • Remember the Puritans will leave England on the Mayflower-Land in Plymouth-because they are looking for religious freedoms

    26. I’ll see your Reformation and Counter Reformation • The Catholic Church was losing followers • The Church realized it needed to restructure and reform some of its practices • Spain the true-blue Catholic country was one of the first to lead this reform by banning the sale of indulgences • Priest and clergymen were trained to live a holy life instead of just preaching about a holy life • That old practice what you preach

    27. I’ll see your Reformation and Counter Reformation • The Council of Trent • Between 1545 and 1563 a group of Church officials defined the doctrine of the Church • It clarified the Church’s position on salvation and other religious questions • Heretics were punished and Latin became the official language (again) of the Church

    28. I’ll see your Reformation and Counter Reformation • The Catholic Church however was not giving into the Protestants instead it was going to compete against the Protestants • The Church established a more rigorous religious discipline • Created an Index of Forbidden Books • This list would last until 1966 • Some notables on the list • John Locke,

    29. I’ll see your Reformation and Counter Reformation • The Catholic Church made weekly mass a must • The Pope had supreme authority over all things holy • Oh ya there was also a new brand of Catholics called Jesuits

    30. New Catholic Soldiers • Jesuits • Were formed by Ignatius Loyola a former Spanish Soldier • Wanted to restore the faith in the teachings of Jesus • Practiced self control, moderation, and believed that prayer and good works led to salvation

    31. New Catholic Soldiers • The society of Jesuits often called itself the “Church Militant” and expected high expectations in the clergy in regards to religion • Those who did not follow the rules were often tried by the Church

    32. New Catholic Soldiers • Many Jesuits were known for their oratorical and political skills • Many kings and Queen in Europe who wished to keep their empires on the side of the Catholic Church appointed Jesuits to high palace positions • Jesuits also became missionaries, educators and diplomats and played an active role in European politics until the 1700’s

    33. Those famous words,Why can’t we all just get along? • Result of the Counter Reformation • The Catholic Church was back in business again • It had contained the spread of Protestantism to Northern Germany, Scandinavia, Scotland, parts of central Europe and small parts of France-and then there was England-Who made their own church • The result would be Religious Wars

    34. If you can’t join them then beat them • The Protestant Reformation was as much religious as it was political • The Catholic countries of France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and Italy were going to force the Protestant countries to return the Catholicism

    35. If you can’t join them then beat them • In the 1540’s religious wars break out in the German states of the Holy roman Empire • The Catholic forces win but with the Treaty of Augsburg the Catholics and the Protestants have to compromise and several German states are allowed to remain Protestant

    36. If you can’t join them then beat them • Between 1530’s to the 1600’s there were religious wars in England and Scotland • The Dutch who were Calvinist were determined to drive the Catholic Spanish out of region • France experienced several bloody wars between Catholics and French Protestants (Huguenots) • The Massacre of St. Bartholomew

    37. If you can’t join them then beat them • The Spanish Armada • In 1588 the Catholic Spanish launched and attack on the Anglican British • The Spanish planed to invade England-defeat Elizabeth I and return England to it’s original Catholic state • The Armada failed

    38. The Thirty Years’ War • The last large religious war to be fought was the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) • Protestant Bohemians living inside the Holy Roman Empire had issues with Catholic authorities

    39. The Thirty Years’ War • The Protestants were backed by • The Dutch, Swedes, The German states that adopted Lutheranism, and Calvinist • England sent financial support

    40. The Thirty Years’ War • The Catholics were backed by • Spain, Austrians of the Holy Roman Empire, and German states of the Holy Roman Empire that remained Catholic

    41. The Thirty Years’ War • The war soon turned form a religious war to a political war • The Catholic nation of France joined the war on the side of Protestant German states • This was in an effort to weaken Spain and the Holy Roman Empire who France saw as a threat to the French state • France’s intervention was seen as a growing secular Europe and not one based on religion

    42. The Thirty Years’ War • The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) • The Protestants with the assistance of the French had defeated the catholic armies • Now Europe would have to learn to co-exist • The Treaty marked the end of disputes in Europe based on religion • Further disputes would be based on nationalism