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Computers: The End User’s Perspective Hardware Software Applications Operating Systems Types of Computers Types of Operating Systems DOS, Windows,… Unix, Linux Other What Is a Computer Definition:

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computers the end user s perspective
Computers: The End User’s Perspective
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Applications
  • Operating Systems
  • Types of Computers

Types of Operating Systems

    • DOS, Windows,…
    • Unix, Linux
    • Other

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

what is a computer
What Is a Computer
  • Definition:
    • A computer is a device which takes data in one form, uses it, and produces a different form of information which is related to (but not the same as) the original data.

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

basic concepts of computers
Basic Concepts of Computers
  • Minimal configurations of a typical computer include:
      • input units
      • output units
      • memory
      • central processing unit

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

basic concepts of computers4
Basic Concepts of Computers
  • Computer Hardware
      • The electronics and associated mechanical parts of the computer.
  • Computer Software
      • Consists of instructions that control the hardware and cause the desired process to happen

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

the many kinds of computers
The Many Kinds of Computers
  • General-purpose Computers
      • Were not manufactured to do any one thing.
      • Changeable to do any task.
  • Special-purpose Computers
      • Manufactured to do a predetermined task or set of tasks.

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

the many kinds of computers6
The Many Kinds of Computers
  • Digital Computers
      • One that functions in discretely varying quantities.
      • Produces or gives results that are also discretely varying.
  • Analog Computers
      • One that functions in continuously varying quantities.
      • Produces or gives results that are also continuously varying.

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

the general purpose digital computer
The General-Purpose Digital Computer
  • The General-Purpose Digital Computer
      • Accepts information of many kinds.
      • Changes it in a way that is controlled by humans.
      • Presents results in a way usable by humans.

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

the von neumann computer and beyond
The Von Neumann Computer and Beyond
  • Microcomputer

Memory

Input

Units

Output

Units

CPU

(Central Processing Unit)

Input Units:

Keyboard

Floppy disk

Hard disk

Mouse

CD ROM

Output Units:

Screen

Floppy drive

Hard disk

Printer

Speakers

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

the von neumann computer and beyond9
The Von Neumann Computer and Beyond
  • Minicomputer

Memory

Input

Units

Output

Units

CPU

(Central Processing Unit)

Input Units:

Several Keyboards

Floppy disk(s)

Hard disk(s)

Several Mice

CD ROM(s)

Output Units:

Several Screens

Floppy drive(s)

Hard disk(s)

Printer(s)

Speakers(s)

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

the von neumann computer and beyond10
The Von Neumann Computer and Beyond
  • Mainframe computer

Memory

Input

Units

Output

Units

CPU

(Central Processing Unit)

Input Units:

Many Keyboard

(Hundreds?)

Massive Hard disk

Output Units:

Many Screens

(Hundreds?)

Massive Hard disk

Printer(s)

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

the von neumann computer and beyond11
The Von Neumann Computer and Beyond
  • Supercomputer

Memory

Input

Units

Output

Units

CPU

(Central Processing Unit)

Input Units:

Many Keyboard

(Hundreds?)

Massive Hard disk

CPUs:

From many (from 4)

To thousands (65,537)

Output Units:

Many Screens

(Hundreds?)

Massive Hard disk

Printer(s)

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

what is an operating system
What Is an Operating System?
  • The operating system:
    • A collection of programs that help you use the computer.
    • Acts as a smart assistant that moves information around the computer.
    • Allows use of (partial list!)
      • the keyboard
      • the mouse
      • printing to a printer of your choice
      • viewing information on a monitor
      • saving or retrieving files
      • formatting a disk
      • running programs
      • controlling any external device attached to the computer

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

what is an operating system13
What Is an Operating System?
  • Where does the operating system reside?
    • ROM (Read Only Memory)
      • Contains the skeleton operating system.
      • The skeleton operating system allows use of keyboard and both floppy and hard disk drives.
    • RAM (Random Access Memory)
      • The main part of the operating system is transferred from a secondary memory source, usually a hard disk to RAM.
    • The complete operating system contained in both ROM and RAM controls the computer.

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum

what is an operating system14
What Is an Operating System?
  • Earlier synonyms for the operating system:
    • monitor, supervisor, executive
  • Now, operating systems are referred to by their commercial names:
    • MS-DOS, Windows ‘98, MacOS, OS/2, UNIX, Linux, VMS,…

Courtesy of: The Computer Continuum