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Computers and Computer Systems

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  1. Computers and Computer Systems Computing Fundamentals IC3 Computing Fundamentals

  2. Major Unit Concepts • Understand the importance of computers. • Define computers and computer systems. • Classify computers. • Use computer systems. • Identify system components. • Identify types of storage devices. • Explore computers in your future. Computing Fundamentals

  3. Vocabulary • arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) • central processing unit (CPU) • circuit board • computer • control unit • Data • hard disk • hardware • information • memory • mobile device • motherboard • notebook computer Computing Fundamentals

  4. Vocabulary • random access memory (RAM) • read-only memory (ROM) • server • software • supercomputer • tablet PC • USB flash drive Computing Fundamentals

  5. Understanding the Importance of Computers • The computer is one of the most important inventions of the past century. • You find computers and computer technology everywhere—from businesses and financial organizations, to home electronics and appliances, to personal applications. Computing Fundamentals

  6. Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) Computers are used everyday: • Educational institutions use computers to enhance instruction and learning. • Video game systems are computerized. • Banks use ATM’s so you can withdrawal money from you bank account in almost any location in the world. • Computers are used by television and at the movies. • Mobile computing, text messaging, or email allow you to communicate with people almost everywhere. Computing Fundamentals

  7. Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) Computers have been around for more than 60 years. • A Brief History of the Computer: • The first computers were developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s for use by the military and government. • In 1971, Dr. Ted Hoff developed the microprocessor. • The first Apple computer was built in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. • The IBM PC was introduced in 1981by Bill Gates. He worked with IBM to develop the first Disk Operating System. Computing Fundamentals

  8. Defining Computers and Computer Systems • A computer is an electronic device that receives data (input), processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output). • A computer system includes hardware, software, data, and people. Computing Fundamentals

  9. Defining Computers and Computer Systems (continued) • The actual machine—wires, transistors, and circuits—is called hardware. • Software consists of instructions or programs for controlling the computer. • Data is text, numbers, sound, images, or video. • The computer receives data through an input device, process the data, produces the output (or information), and stores the data and information on a storage device. Computing Fundamentals

  10. Defining Computers and Computer Systems (continued) Computers perform only 2 operations: • Arithmetic Computations: addition, subtraction, multiply, divide, and comparisons. • Logical Operations: AND, OR, and NOT Computing Fundamentals

  11. Classifying Computers • Special-purpose computers are used mostly to control something else. • General-purpose computers are divided into categories, based on their physical size, function, cost, and performance: • Supercomputer • Embedded computers • Portable players • Calculators • Computer game systems • Electronic book readers • Desktop and notebook computers • Server • Mobile devices • Tablet PC • Mainframe computer Computing Fundamentals

  12. Using Computer Systems • Computers are used for all kinds of tasks. They take raw data and change it into information. An example of the procedure: • You enter programs and data with some type of input device. • The computer uses instructions to process the data and to turn it into information. • You send the information to some type of output device. • You store it for later retrieval. Computing Fundamentals

  13. Using Computer Systems (continued) • Computer components Computing Fundamentals

  14. Identifying System Components • The motherboard is a circuit board that contains integral components—central processing unit, memory, connectors, and expansion ports and slots. Computing Fundamentals

  15. Identifying System Components (continued) The Central Processing Unit: • The central processing unit (CPU) is the brains of the computer. • The CPU has two primary sections: the arithmetic/logic unit and the control unit. Computing Fundamentals

  16. Identifying System Components (continued) • The Arithmetic/Logic Unit: • The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic computations and logical operations. • The Control Unit: • The control unit coordinates all of the processor’s activities. • You communicate with the computer through programming languages. • The computer uses machine language, or binary code, which contains only 1s and 0s. Computing Fundamentals

  17. Identifying System Components (continued) Recognizing How a Computer Represents Data: • In machine language, the control unit sends out necessary messages to execute the instructions. A single zero or a single one is a bit. A byte is a single character. Each bit is equal to 1 byte. Computing Fundamentals

  18. Identifying System Components (continued) Memory • Memory is where data is stored on the motherboard. • Memory can be short term or long term. • When you want to store a file or information permanently, you use secondary storage devices such as the computer’s hard drive or a USB drive. You might think of this as long term memory. Computing Fundamentals

  19. Identifying System Components (continued) Random Access Memory • The memory on the motherboard is short term, called random access memory (RAM). • Data, information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip and disappear when the computer is turned off. Computing Fundamentals

  20. Identifying System Components (continued) Random Access Memory (cont) • The instruction cycle is the amount of time it takes to retrieve instructions to perform a specified task and complete the command. • The execution cycle refers to the amount of time it takes the CPU to execute the instruction and store the results in RAM. Computing Fundamentals

  21. Identifying System Components (continued) Random Access Memory (cont) • Together, the instruction cycle and one or more execution cycles create a machine cycle. Computing Fundamentals

  22. Identifying System Components (continued) Random Access Memory (cont): • For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which compose a machine cycle: • Fetching is the process of obtaining a program instruction or data item from RAM • Decoding refers to the process of translating the instruction into signals the computer can execute. • Executing is the process of carrying out the commands. • Storing, in this context, means writing the result to memory (not to a storage medium). Computing Fundamentals

  23. Identifying System Components (continued) • Random Access Memory (cont): Computing Fundamentals

  24. Identifying System Components (continued) • Read-Only Memory: • Another type of memory found on the motherboard is read-only memory (ROM). • ROM chips store specific instructions that are needed for computer operations. These instructions remain on the chip even when the power is turned off. • The more common of these is the BIOS ROM, containing instructions to start the system when you turn on the computer. Computing Fundamentals

  25. Identifying Types of Storage Devices To keep a permanent copy of data, you must store it on a storage device. Magnetic Storage Devices: • Data is stored in numbered Tracks. • Tracks are labeled and kept in a special log on the disk called a file allocation table (FAT). • Types of magnetic storage media include hard disks, magnetic, tape, 3 ½ -inch disks and zip disks. Computing Fundamentals

  26. Identifying Types of Storage Devices Hard Disks: • Also called hard drives • Store date inside the computer • Can be internal or external • Internal hard disks advantages: speed and capacity • Size measured in gigabytes or terabytes. Computing Fundamentals

  27. Identifying Types of Storage Devices (continued) Optical Storage Devices: • Use laser technology to read and write data on plastic platters that contain a metal layer, like CDs and DVDs. • CD-R - Can be ready only by CD-ROM drive. After it is written, it cannot be changed. • CD-RW- Rewritable type that allows you to write on it several times. • Blu-Ray – Provides more than 5 times the storage capacity of traditional DVD’s. Can hold up to 50 GB and was developed for HD videos. Computing Fundamentals

  28. Identifying Types of Storage Devices (continued) Solid-State Storage Media • Removable medium that uses integrated circuits, such as a USB flash drive. • Processed electronically and contains no mechanical devices. • Can be used in cameras, smart phones, and computers. • USB flash drive is most popular removable storage device. Computing Fundamentals

  29. Identifying Types of Storage Devices (continued) Network Drives • Hard drive or tape drive connected to a network server and is available to and shared by multiple users. • Located on a computer other than the local user’s computer. • Remote storage is used to extend disk space on a server and to eliminate the addition of more hard disks or other storage devices. Computing Fundamentals

  30. Caring for Storage Media • Keep away from magnetic fields. • Avoid extreme temperatures. • Remove media from drives and store them properly when not in use. • When handling DVDs and other optical discs, hold them at the edges. • Never try to remove the media from a drive when the drive indicator light is on. • Keep discs in a sturdy case when transporting. Computing Fundamentals

  31. Exploring Computers in Your Future • A major focus of new types of computers is connectivity, or the ability to connect with other computers. • Wireless and mobile devices are now as common as wired desktop machines. • Computer literacy, which is the knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses, will become even more important. Computing Fundamentals

  32. Assignments • TIC-TAC-TOE • Directions: Chose activities in a tic-tac-toe design. When you have completed the activities in a row—horizontally, vertically, or diagonally—or in the 4 corners, you made decide to be finished. Or you may decide to keep going and complete more activities. • Star the activities you plan to complete. Color in the box when you finish the activity. • Discuss and provide Feedback to TIC-TAC-TOE • Review • Take end of section quiz Computing Fundamentals

  33. Continue on to next section Computing Fundamentals

  34. Input, Output, and Processing Computing Fundamentals IC3 Computers and Computer Systems

  35. Major Unit Concepts • Identify and describe standard and specialized input devices. • Identify and describe standard and specialized output devices. • Connect input and output devices to a computer. • Consider computer performance factors. Computing Fundamentals

  36. Vocabulary • audio input • biometrics • digital camera • expansion slot • FireWire • inkjet printer • input • keyboard • laser printer • modem • monitor • mouse • output • plug and play Computing Fundamentals

  37. Vocabulary (continued) • pointing device • port • printer • scanner • trackball • Universal Serial Bus (USB) Computing Fundamentals

  38. Standard Input Devices • Input , which is data , must be entered into computer and then stored on a storage media device. • To turn the data into information, CPU (Central Processing Unit) processes the data. • After data is processed, it is “presented” to the user through an output device. Computing Fundamentals

  39. Standard Input Devices (continued) • Input devices allow you to enter data and commands. • A modem is a device that allows one computer to talk to another. • Keyboards • The keyboard is the most commonly used input device for entering text and numbers into a computer. Computing Fundamentals

  40. Standard Input Devices (continued) • Keyboards (continued): • Ergonomic • Cordless/wireless • Specialized • Security • Foldable/flexible • Laser/virtual Computing Fundamentals

  41. Standard Input Devices (continued) • Pointing Devices: • A pointing device is an input device you use to position the pointer on the screen. • The most common pointing device for personal computers is the mouse. • Mechanical • Optomechanical • Optical • Wireless • Trackball mouse • Radio frequency • Foldable mouse Computing Fundamentals

  42. Standard Input Devices (continued) • Pointing Devices (continued): • The trackball works like a mouse turned upside down; the ball is on top of the device. • A common feature on laptop computers is the touchpad, with a specialized surface that can convert the motion and position of your fingers to a relative position on screen. Computing Fundamentals

  43. Standard Input Devices (continued) • Pointing Devices (continued): • Some notebook computers contain a pointing stick, a pressure-sensitive device that looks like a pencil eraser and is located on the keyboard, generally between the G, H, and B keys. • Audio input is sound entered into a computer. Computing Fundamentals

  44. Standard Output Devices • Output is data processed into a useful format. • Monitors: • Desktop computers typically use a monitor as their display device, including CRT, LCD, and gas plasma. Computing Fundamentals

  45. Standard Output Devices (continued) • Printers: • Printers produce a paper copy, or hard copy, of processing results. • A laser printer produces high-quality output. • An inkjet printer provides good-quality color printing for less expense. • Speakers: • Speakers and headsets generate sound. Computing Fundamentals

  46. Specialized Input Devices • Digital Cameras: • The pictures you take are stored digitally and then transferred to the computer’s memory. Computing Fundamentals

  47. Specialized Input Devices (continued) • Game Controllers: • You use joysticks and wheels most often for games. Computing Fundamentals

  48. Specialized Input Devices • Scanners/Bar Code Readers: • Scanners are devices that can change images into codes for input to the computer. • Image scanners • Bar code scanners • Magnetic scanners • Wireless scanners • Optical character recognition (OCR) and optical mark recognition (OMR) scanners Computing Fundamentals

  49. Specialized Input Devices (continued) • Touch Display Screen: • A special screen that reacts to direct touches within the display area, usually from a person’s finger or hand. Computing Fundamentals

  50. Specialized Input Devices (continued) • Stylus: • A stylus and digital pen are pen-like writing instruments used to enter information by writing on a screen on a mobile device or using the pen as a pointer. Computing Fundamentals