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Cells: A Review A Little History. . . English scientist, Robert Hooke (1665) looked at cork through a compound microscope saw tiny, room-like structures called these structures 'cells' saw only outer walls - cork cells are not alive ( But they used to be! )

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a little history
A Little History. . .

English scientist, Robert Hooke (1665)

  • looked at cork through a compound microscope
  • saw tiny, room-like structures
  • called these structures 'cells'
  • saw only outer walls - cork cells are not alive
  • (But they used to be!)
dutch fabric merchant and amateur scientist anton van leeuwenhoek 1680
Dutch fabric merchant and amateur scientist, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1680)
  • looked at blood, rainwater, scrapings from teeth through a simple microscope
  • observed living cells
  • called these 'animalcules'
german scientists
German scientists
  • Matthias Schleiden (1838)
  • Said that plants are made of cells

Schleiden

  • Theodor Schwann (1839)
  • Said that animals are
  • made of cells

Schwann

  • Rudolph Virchow (1854)
  • Said that new cells form
  • when old cells divide.

Virchow

cell theory
Cell Theory

The work of Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow led to the development of the cell theory.

  • All living things are made of one or more cells.
  • Cells are the basic unit (building block) of all living things.
  • All cells come from cells that already exist.
unicellular or multicellular
Unicellular or multicellular?

Some complete organisms are made of only one cell.

Some are made of only a few cells.

parts of a cell all cells have some very basic parts
Parts of a Cell: All cells have some very basic parts.

Cell Membrane - forms

the outer boundary of the

cell and allows only certain

materials to move into or

out of the cell

slide9
Nucleus - directs the activity of a cell; it contains chromosomes made of DNA

Nuclear Membrane - separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell

slide10
Endoplasmic Reticulum - moves materials around in the cell

(called ER for short)

Golgi Bodies - are used for

packaging and secreting; “hunks” of ER pinch off to form Golgi bodies

lysosomes
Lysosomes
  • The cell’s recyclers.
  • The garbage men of the cell.
slide16
We will look at these cells!

Onion cells

Cheek cells

(stained)

Elodea cells (plant)

microscopes
Microscopes

micro = small

+

scope = to look

Light Microscopes

  • 1. Simple
    • a. one lens
    • b. first invented in 1500’s
  • Compound
      • two lenses
      • We use this one in class.
slide18
Electron

Microscopes

  • TEM
    • Transmission electron microscopes
    • invented in 1931
    • two dimensional image

2. SEM

  • Scanning electron microscopes
  • invented in 1981
  • three dimensional image
  • May be referred to as “tunneling”
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