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Final Exam Review of World History Second Semester (from the Review Outline)

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  1. Final Exam Reviewof World HistorySecond Semester(from the Review Outline)

  2. Absolute Monarchs Define Absolutism.
  3. Absolute Monarchs This was when a monarch or ruler had all the power. They believed that they had the “god-given” right to rule. Examples: *Phillip of Spain, *King Louis XIV (14th) – He built Versailles *King XVI (16th) – Ruler during the French Revolution
  4. Explain divine right and its relationship to absolutism.
  5. Divine Right It gave the ruler absolute rule.
  6. What was the Thirty Year’s War?
  7. Thirty Year’s War European conflict over: Religion (Catholics vs Protestants Territory And for power among ruling families lasting from 1618 to 1648 (30 yrs). France increased its power while weakening Spain and Germany.
  8. In America what was the Thirty Year’s War known as?
  9. The Thirty Year’s War was calledthe Seven Year’s Warin America
  10. Explain the Glorious Revolution.
  11. This was a conflict that happened when Mary and her husband William of Orange deposed her father, James, and forced him off the throne of England because he was a Catholic and they were Protestants. It was called “ Glorious” because no one died.
  12. Who was Czar Ivan (The Terrible) of Russia?
  13. Absolute Ruler of Russia He was czar of Russia; a Romanov;when his wife died he ruled Russia harshly.
  14. Who were the boyars in Russian society?
  15. The boyars were the land owning nobles of Russia that suffered greatly under Ivan the Terrible. They lost much power & influence.
  16. Which French king boasted, “I am the state!”
  17. King Louis the XIV He built the palace of Versailles to show off the power and wealth of France.
  18. Why did Peter the Great move the capital to St. Petersburg?
  19. He wanted a city on the seaport to travel west. He used many serfs to build it and many died.
  20. What form of government did the Dutch choose after gaining freedom from Spain?
  21. The Dutch chose a REPUBLIC.
  22. Why were the great and opulentpalaces –the Escorial and Versailles- built?
  23. Great palaces were built to show off the ruler’s power and create envy between the other monarchs.
  24. What was the main goal of Peter the Great of Russia?
  25. He wanted to westernize Russia.
  26. How was the economy of Central Europe different from that of western Europe?
  27. Serfs(servants) in central Europe remained on the land to work the crops.
  28. What was the significance of the English Bill of Rights?
  29. The English Bill of Rights (1689) made clear the limits of royal power. It gave Britain stronger nobles with rights, like trial by jury. It was signed by William and Mary.
  30. The Ottoman Empire:Who were some of its leaders and what was life like in the Ottoman Empire?
  31. The Ottoman Empire:*A nomadic group of Turkish people originally from Central Asia.*1453- Captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul*Suleiman the Magnificent – height of Ottoman empire;*Janissary soldiers, made up of Christian soldiers were part of a diverse culture; *European imperialism and trade created an inflated economy in the Ottoman Empire
  32. Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment What is the heliocentric theory?
  33. Heliocentric Theorywas the idea that the sun is at the center of the universe. This was proposed by Copernicus. Galileo Galileialso supported Copernicus’s theory. He even had to be under house arrest because of his beliefs.
  34. What contributions to science did Isaac Newton make?
  35. Isaac Newton Isaac Newton developed the Law of Universal Gravity. His book, Principia Mathematica, connected the speed of falling objects on Earth to the movements of planets.
  36. Why did transoceanic tradevoyages increase during the1450 t0 1750 era?
  37. The Slave Trade Spain and Portugal lead the way during by leaving their coasts and exploring the Atlantic and African coastlines in an effort to gain access to trade with Asia. Prince Henry of Portugal developed a new, lighter sailing ship and sponsored expeditions along the coast of Africa. Spain explored the Americas, which led to the Columbian Exchange between Europe and the Americas. European rulers exchanged goods and weapons for slaves from Africa with West African empires.
  38. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
  39. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It recognized the existence of natural rights such as the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It stated that the purpose of government was to protect these rights, which demonstrated the strong influence of John Locke on colonial thinking.
  40. Which Enlightenment philosopher had influenced the Bill of Rights?
  41. John Locke He believed all people are born free and equal with three natural rights: life, liberty, property
  42. What were the ideas of Thomas Hobbes?
  43. Thomas Hobbes: Hobbes believed that the ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control. His view is that an absolute monarchy could impose order and demand obedience. (In other words…he believed in the total opposite view of Locke.)
  44. What were the ideas of French philosopher, Montesquieu?
  45. Baron de Montesquieu: (1689-1755) Believed in the separation of powers as a check against tyranny.
  46. What ideas did Enlightenment promote?
  47. Enlightenment Ideas promote: Progress More secular (or worldly) outlook faith in Science Enlightened thinkers believed that by applying reason and scientific laws, people would be better able to understand both nature and one another. The scientific method could help solve problems.
  48. What were the Navigation Acts?
  49. Navigation Acts In 1660s England’s parliament passed the Navigation Acts. These were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies. In other words, it prevented American colonists from selling their most valuable products to any country except Britain.
  50. What is “taxation without representation”?
  51. Britain tried to tax the colonists without their consent (permission). This was called taxation without representation. An example was the Stamp Act.
  52. French Revolution What was the Estates General?
  53. An assembly of representatives from all 3 Estates: First = Clergy, less than 1% Second= Rich Nobles, 2% Third= Bourgeoisie (enlightened ones) Workers & Servants Peasants
  54. About what percent of the French population was represented by the Third Estate?
  55. The Third Estate: made up 97% of the population in France *Well-educated bourgeoisie or rich nobles and some were merchants and artisans who embraced enlightened ideals *cooks, servants, maids *peasants
  56. What issue caused the King Louis XVI to call the Estates General for the first time in 175 years?
  57. King Louis XVI imposed called for a tax on Second Estate. And the Second Estate wouldn’t have it! The country was in debt and the Estates General was called to find a solution.
  58. What does Bastille Day celebrate?
  59. Bastille Day symbolizes the beginning of the French Revolution. July 14, 1789 – After King Louis XVI tried to break up the new National Assembly the people of Paris seized the royal prison known as the Bastille in search of weapons to guard themselves against the king and his Swiss guard.
  60. What was the slogan of the French Revolution?
  61. “liberty, brotherhood, equality” (“liberte, fraternite, equalite!”) Think: ELF Equality Liberty Fraternityor brotherhood
  62. Explain the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
  63. It was France’s declaration that stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights.” It was drafted by the new National Assembly on August 27, 1789
  64. Why did the National Assembly lose the support of the French peasants?
  65. To pay off France’s debt the National Assembly took lands and money away from the church. Since the church helped the peasants, the peasants were not pleased at all that the church lost all of its capital.
  66. Which group imposed the Reign of Terror?
  67. MaximillienRobespiere’s group: called the Committee of Public Safety (Don’t let the name fool you…no one was safe. Not even Robespiere, who lost his head by the guillotine on July 28, 1789.
  68. Which group of Frenchmen most strongly embraced the ideas of the Revolution? Why?
  69. The Radical Phase The Radicals – the groups that were way left of France’s governmentand wanted dramatic change! The Jacobins Committee of Public Safety During this phase revolutionaries used the guillotine on people who refused to embrace the ideals of the revolution.
  70. What were Napoleon’s reforms?
  71. Napoleon’s accomplishments: Free public schools, or lycees Created a system of tax collection He established a fair tax code Wrote new constitution Established the Napoleonic Code
  72. What was the Napoleonic Code?
  73. Napoleonic Code Gave France a uniform code of laws Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights Took away women’s right to sell property Freedom of speech and of the press were restricted rather than expanded Restored slavery in the French colonies of the Caribbean, which the revolutionary government had established.
  74. Explain Napoleon’s Continental System.
  75. The Continental System: Napoleon’s blockade of The European continent. It cutoff trade with Britain. Wanted to make Europe self-sufficient and hurt Britain’s economy. Some countries refused to honor the blockade, like Portugal.
  76. How did Great Britain react to the Continental System?
  77. Britain established a blockade of their own and got into a war with the U.S. (the U.S. was helped by France during the fight for independence from Britain)
  78. Explain the Peninsular Wars.
  79. Peninsular Wars: Portugal refused to honor the blockade of Britain. Napoleon wanted to punish Portugal. He invaded Spain to gain access to Portugal. Spain refused to allow Napoleon’s troops through its country and responded by using guerilla warfare.
  80. Discuss Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.
  81. Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia: He went to Russia. Russia used scorched earth policy and burned everything as they retreated. Napoleon took Russia. The Russian winter began and Napoleon’s troops froze. He lost a lot of men.
  82. Why did Napoleon sell French lands called “Louisiana”?
  83. The Louisiana Purchase To fund his war; he needed money; cut association with France’s colonies in America;
  84. What were the results of the Battle of Trafalgar?
  85. Battle of Trafalgar: British commander Horatio Nelson outmaneuvered Napoleon’s ships. The destruction of France’s fleet had two outcomes: *showed Britain’s naval supremacy *Forced Napoleon to give up his plans for invading Britain.
  86. Once Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, what was the Congress of Vienna and what did it accomplish?
  87. The Congress of Vienna established a balance of power in Europe. It wanted to make sure that no country would be a threat to others. It restored Europe’s royal families to the thrones they had before Napoleon.
  88. Industrial Revolution What was the Industrial Revolution?
  89. The Industrial Revolution: There was an increase in the output of machine made goods. It began in England during the 18th century.
  90. What agricultural changes occurred during the Industrial Revolution?
  91. Small farmers moved to the city. Enclosures are used by wealthy land owners Landowners try new agricultural methods
  92. What are the three factors of production?
  93. The Three Factors of Production land, capital, labor
  94. What caused urbanization (people moving from farms to cities)?
  95. Industrialization! Before the Industrial Revolution, craftsmen worked at home, spinning wool, cotton, and linen by hand, and then weaving the thread or yarn into finished cloth. Merchants often dropped off raw materials and collected the cloth. This was known as the domestic system or cottage industry. During the Industrial Revolution, large numbers of workers began working together in factories. In factories, workers could be supervised and could use machines driven by water or steam power. The rate of production in the new factories was astonishing and the demand for textiles rose. Raw cotton was imported in England, largely from the Southern U.S. In England, it was then spun into thread and woven into cotton cloth in factories. From there, the cloth was shipped all around the world.
  96. What did Britain do in order to keep its industrial secrets?
  97. Britain did not allow its engineers, mechanics, toolmaker, inventors (etc.) to leave the country.
  98. Explain the benefit of being a stockholder in a corporation.
  99. Stockholders benefits: If the company went into debt, they were not personally responsible for its entire debt.
  100. Who is Adam Smith?What is capitalism?
  101. Adam Smith & Capitalism Adam Smith (1723-1790), a Scottish professor Published his book, The Wealth of Nations, in 1776 Explained how production benefits from the division of labor, in which workers specialized in particular steps of the production process. The laws of supply and demand determine the prices of production. Each person pursues his own interests in a free enterprise system under laissez faire (government keeps its hands off) = Capitalism This countered British mercantilism that was restrictive.
  102. Explain Laissez-faire.
  103. Laissez-faire A policy that let owners of industry set working conditions without government interference
  104. What were worker’s unions?Why did they form and what did they accomplish?
  105. Worker’sUnions Worker’s unions were organized groups that formed to make working conditions safer and better. Worker’s unions negotiated with bosses for higher wages Collective bargaining, or skillful negotiation, was used by unions to ask for more rights, like better work hours
  106. Discuss three important liberal reforms that came out of the Industrial period.
  107. Three Reforms: Industrialization caused… Abolition of slavery Women’s rights Public education
  108. Who was William Wilberforce and what was his goal?
  109. William Wilberforce: He abolished slavery and the slave trade in Great Britain in 1807 with his Slave Trade Bill.
  110. Why was India called the “jewel of the crown” of the British Empire?
  111. “Jewel of the crown” meant that India had the resources Britain needed.
  112. What was the result of the Berlin Conference?
  113. The Berlin Conference: In the age of imperialism, European nations divided Africa into colonies. It was a scramble to grab up land in Africa to dominate its resources to feed their industries.
  114. Explain the economic policy of cash cropping.
  115. It was the main cause of inadequate food supplies in Africa during European colonization.
  116. Explain paternalism.
  117. When a country provides for its colonial peoples’ needs but did not give them full rights
  118. Discuss the events surrounding the Sepoy Mutiny.
  119. The British government took direct command of India after the Indian soldiers mutinied against the British.
  120. World War I Explain militarism.
  121. Militarism Militarism happens when a country keeps its power ready for war by building up its armaments (arms) and develops its weapons. Best example: Germany
  122. What caused World War I ?
  123. Causes of WWI: Militarism – countries developed strong militaries that were ready to defend their countries Alliance system – countries created alliances to defend each other in times of war Industrialism – industrial powers had the resources, weapons, and military to go to war Nationalism – the belief that each country’s people or ethnic group should have its own nation and defend it created a strong sense of pride.
  124. The match that lit the powder keg or Balkan states of Europe… The assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie by Serbian radical GavriloPrincipmade Austria declare war on Serbia.
  125. Which countries made up the Triple Alliance, which later became the Central Powers?
  126. Triple Alliance/Central Powers: Was made up of the alliance of Germany Austria-Hungary Italy They were called the Central Powers due to their central location in Europe.
  127. Which countries made up the Triple Entente or Allied Powers?
  128. Triple Entente / Allied Powers Russia France Great Britain
  129. What was the Schlieffen Plan?
  130. The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s plan during WWI that was designed by General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen. In a two-front war, Schlieffen called for a attacking France first on the Western front of Germany. It would then attack Russia on the Eastern front. Russia was chosen second due to the fact that they were behind, industrially speaking and would take longer to get to the front.
  131. 25. Which nation’s actions caused the United States to enter World War I?
  132. US Enters WWI: May 7, 1915 - German U-boats bombed and sank the luxury liner the Lusitania. The attack killed 1,198 people, including 128 U.S. citizens February 1917 – the British intercepted the Zimmerman telegram from German ambassador Arthur Zimmermann to the ambassador in Mexico, urging Mexico to help Germany in exchange for Mexico’s lands in the southwest.
  133. Explain the concept of Total War.
  134. Total War All of a country’s resources and people help their country fight a war.
  135. Explain the meaning of armistice.
  136. An Armistice: When two sides sign a peace agreement to end the fighting in a war.
  137. What were Wilson’s 14 Points?
  138. Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Wilson’s plan for ending the WWI peacefully and avoiding future wars. 1-5: end of secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced national armies & navies 6-13: specific suggestions for changing borders and creating new nations 14: create an organization to peacefully negotiate solutions to world conflicts = established the League of Nations
  139. What were the main provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?
  140. Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI and tried to weaken it and set limits. *demilitarize Germany *Germany lost territories – Alsace Lorraine, overseas colonies in Africa and the Pacific *Pay war reparations *sole responsibility for WWI *could not join the League of Nations
  141. Explain the impact of World War I on the economies of Europe?
  142. Impact of WWI on the Economies of the World: It drained the treasuries in Europe. Countries had a lot of war debt.
  143. How did the colonies help their colonial powers?
  144. The Colonies during WWI The colonies supported their colonial powers by providing food for the soldiers fighting. This sometimes caused famines within the colonies. Men from the homelands left to help fight alongside the soldiers fighting in the war. Resources were provided to help the colonial powers.
  145. Crisis Years What did Sigmund Freud contribute during the Crisis Years?
  146. Sigmund Freud An Austrian physician that treated patients with psychological problems. He believed that much of human behavior is irrational, or beyond reason. He called the irrational part of the mind the unconscious. In the unconscious, a number of drives existed, especially pleasure-seeking drives, of which the conscious mind was unaware. His ideas weakened faith in reason. All the same, by the 1920s, Freud’s theories had developed widespread influence.
  147. What event marked the beginning of the Great Depression?
  148. The Great Depression: A global depression had begun soon after WWI as countries were struggling to recover economically from the war. Germany had to repay countries and began printing more paper money. Once England’s economy recovered it no longer relied solely on the US for goods. The US began to ask for repayment of debts owed. Tariff’s were charged on goods coming in from other countries. The Stock Market Crash of 1929 – The US stock market crashed when massive selling of stocks caused a drop in stock prices and millions of Americans saw the value of their shares drop. They lost millions in the stock market. Companies could not afford to pay workers and massive layoffs ensued.
  149. What was the Dawes Plan?
  150. Dawes Plan Charles Dawes gave 200 million to Germany to end inflation and help with the war debt…stabilize the country.
  151. Who was Il Duce and what king of government did he establish in Italy?
  152. Benito Mussolini Il Duce was Benito Mussolini who was the fascist leader of Italy.
  153. What German political party hoped to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and fight Communism?
  154. Germany’s NAZI Party The Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party, called Nazi for short, help policies, that supported the middle and lower middle classes of Germany and had its own brand of fascism known as Nazism.
  155. What countries joined the Axis Powers during WWII?
  156. The AXIS Powers: Germany Italy Japan
  157. Which countries made up the Allied Powersduring WWII?
  158. The Allied Powers & Leaders Great Britain, Churchill France, Charles de Gaulle Russia, Stalin United States: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Harry S. Truman
  159. What was the goal of U.S. isolationism after World War I?
  160. US Isolationism WWI had been such a devastating war that many US citizens wanted to stay out of European conflicts
  161. What was the policy of appeasement?
  162. Appeasement Britain and France looked the other way while Germany invaded surrounding countries. (This ended when Germany invaded Poland in Sept. 1939.)
  163. World War II Why did Hitler target the Jewish population in addition to gypsies, homosexuals, and other undesirables?
  164. A Master Race Hitler’s book Mein Kampfoutlined his beliefs and goals for Germany. He established that Germans, made up of Aryans were a “master race.” He declared that non-Aryan “races” – such as Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies – were inferior. His hatred of the Jews was a key part of Nazism. His hatred also targeted homosexuals and the mentally impaired.
  165. Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany?
  166. Britain and France declared war on Germany when Hitler invaded Poland in a surprise attack that took place on September 1, 1939. German warplanes invaded Polish airspace, raining bombs and terror on the Poles. At the same time, German tanks and troop trucks rumbled across the Polish border. The trucks carried more than 1.5 million soldiers into the assault. German aircraft and artillery began a merciless bombing of Poland’s capital, Warsaw. No one knew at the time that WWII had started.
  167. What does “blitzkrieg” mean?
  168. “Blietzkrieg” It means lightning war. Germany’s airplanes would strike the enemy quickly andattack by surprise.
  169. Discuss the Battle of Britain and its outcome.
  170. The Battle of Britain Germany’s blitzkrieg, or “lightning war”, was a combination of bombing by G’s Luftwaffe (air force), infantry, and tanks. In the Battle of Britain Germany bombed Britain from the air. Winston Churchill, a brilliant orator, inspired the British people with stirring public speeches to carry on. Britain was able to fight off Germany with the use of radar and the bravery of Britain’s air force. Germany was unable to defeat the British. This showed Britain that they could beat Germany.
  171. Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
  172. Japan expanded and gained more islands in the Pacific. The U.S. had an oil embargo on Japan when it began to attack and claim islands in the Pacific. Japan needed oil to fuel it’s war machine. Japan decided to attack Pearl Harbor, a U.S. base.
  173. Why was the Battle of Midway important?
  174. The Battle of Midway It began the war in the Pacific and showed that Japan could be beaten.
  175. What was Hitler’s Final Solution?
  176. Hitler’s decision to liquidate the Jews. Genocide
  177. How did the Lend-Lease Act benefit the United States?
  178. Lend-Lease The US sold ammunition to the Allied powers in Europe
  179. How did the United States end the war with Japan? Hint:
  180. Hiroshima and Nagasaki Truman decided to use the newly buiIt weapon: The A-Bomb. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 Nagasaki was bombed 3 days later on August 9, 1945
  181. What happened to the Japan after their surrender?
  182. Post WWII Japan: Demilitarized – could not have a military Rebuilt using the Marshal Plan Made smaller engine cars, which helped their economy. Developed an electronic industry Education – with no military it left funds to encourage education Powerful nation – architecture and technology
  183. Explain the Nuremburg Trials.
  184. Trials at Nuremberg In 1946, and International Military Tribunal representing 23 nations put Nazis war criminalson trial in Nuremberg, Germany. In the first of the Nuremberg trials, 22 Nazi leaders were charged with waging a war of aggression. They were also accused of violating the laws of war and of committing “crimes against humanity” – the murdering of 11 million people.
  185. Trials at Nuremberg Criminals: Escaped trial by committing suicide were… Fuhrer Adolf Hitler Heinrich Himmler, SS chief Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda Faced trial: 22 defendants, Marshal Hermann Goring (later committed suicide), Deputy Fuhrer Rudolf Hess, Hans Frank (“slayer of the Poles”),
  186. What was the significance of theBerlin Wall?
  187. The Berlin Wall After WWII, Europe was divided between East and West influences. Germany’s postwar fate, which was decided at the Yalta Conference, left the country split into two sections. The Soviets controlled the eastern part, including half of Germany’s capital, Berlin. The western zones became the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949.
  188. “The Iron Curtain” Winston Churchill descrived the division of Europe using the phrase “iron curtain.” “Iron curtain” came to represent Europe’s division between Western democratic Europe and Eastern Communist Europe. Stalin’s reaction to Winston’s words was somewhat of a “call to war.” The Cold War had begun…
  189. The Cold War Soviet-American relations became colder. Each country distrusted the other. The U.S. encouraged democracy in other countries to help prevent the rise of Communist governments. The U.S. used dollar diplomacy to prevent the rise of radicalism. The Soviet Union encouraged the spread of Communism as part of a worldwide workers’ revolution. He wanted to protect Eastern Europe’s borders by lining the U.S.S.R.’s borders with buffer nations.
  190. Korean War During WWII, Japan annexed Korea During the Cold War, U.S. and USSR split Korea at the 38th parallel North Korea was run by USSR & became communist South Korea was aided by the U.S. & became democratic The two fought in 1950. Armistice was signed in 1953.
  191. Vietnam North Vietnam was run by Ho Chi Min South Vietnam was run by Ngo Dihn Diem Vietnam was split at the 17th parallel The U.S. came to the aid of the democratic south. China and Russia backed North Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh won and reunified Vietnam making it a Communist state First time a superpower (US) lost.
  192. Fall of Communism 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev changed the economic policies of the Soviet Union by introducing a policy known as glasnost, or openness. He encouraged citizens to discuss ways to improve their society. A lack of a consumer economy weakened the SU Independence movements meant that Communist countries broke away from the Soviet Union. More countries experienced western culture and democracy. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989. Communism came to an end in 1991.
  193. Globalization: It’s a small world More and more areas of modern-day life required the cooperation and collaboration of countries. For instance: Space – astronauts from all around the world collaborate on satellite projects and space science experiments Communications – telephone satellites and computer networks, like the internet, connect people from all over the world. Multinational corporations rely on workers in many countries of the world Medicine – doctors share information to eradicate diseases that affect people all over the planet